PS 178:  Small States in the Contemporary World

A Senior Seminar
International Relations Program
Department of Political Science

Link to PS178 on Courseinfo

Small States in the Contemporary World 
PS 178: Senior Seminar


Wednesdays, 6:30-9:00
Eaton 209

John Gould, Instructor
Eaton Hall 302

Course Description

If it is true that "the strong do what they will, while the weak suffer what they must" small states must have extraordinary strengths to survive in an anarchic world. Most courses in political science divide the world either by region or by income. A focus on small states allows us to take a fresh look across these divisions and ask ourselves whether they might hide common challenges or obscure important factors that account for the diversity of small state survival strategies. As a guiding framework, we will emphasize a number of areas of concern to small states in the contemporary world, including: security and diplomacy; economic choice and constraint; domestic political institutions; and the challenges of culture, ethnicity and nationalism in a small state context. Students will complete a series of short writing assignments that will serve as the basis for a 15-20 page final research paper. 

Course grades will be heavily oriented towards class participation. This will include extra credit for assistance with aspects of the Conference on Small States. Students who write particularly good short papers will be asked to present their papers on a specially organized conference panel.

Course Requirements: 

Beyond learning about small states in the contemporary world, the major goal of this course is to encourage analytical thought. Nothing you read or hear me or your classmates say in this class is unassailable. There are no correct answers, only better arguments. This principle informs the basic class requirements:

Class Participation, 30%:: This is a seminar. Ideally, it will consist of a series of structured, focused class discussions based on the readings and student research interests. Students are expected to have done the readings and be ready to discuss the issues of the week. 

Unexplained absences will definitely count against you. Final grades will be heavily dependent on the quality (NOT the quantity) of your participation. Students are encouraged to keep in mind the following common sense guidelines:

Contributing to class discussions will help your grade. Dominating class discussions will not! If you have already made a point in a discussion, please defer to those who have not yet had a chance to speak. 

Be courteous and respect the opinions of the instructor and your classmates. 

Feel free to challenge my arguments or those of your classmates. There is no political litmus test. Disagree, but be constructive!

Please do not change the discussion topic until you are sure that your classmates no longer have something to say on the current topic.

If there is something you do not understand, please bring it up. Chances are that if you are confused on an issue, a good number of your classmates are confused as well.

If you are reluctant to participate, I will occasionally call on you, so be sure to keep up with the readings.

Grading criteria for class participation will be as follows. D & low C range: No or little participation; little indication that you've done or understood the readings before class. High C & B range: Occasional participation; moderate indication that you've done the readings before class. A range: frequent, courteous participation without dominating class; clearly keeping up with the readings.

Short Writing Assignments 30%: During the semester, you shall be asked to write a series of short papers (ranging anywhere from 2-7 pages in length). These papers will attempt to link on-going student research interests with the topics covered in the class. Please use 12 pt., Times New Roman Font, one-inch margins and standard citation and bibliography methods.

Final Research Paper 40%: At the end of the semester, you will be expected to turn in an empirically informed analytical essay based on some aspect of the course. You may choose any topic relating to small states. You should provide me with a one page (or less!) summary of your research question and potential countries of interests within two weeks of the first midterm exam. This question should be of an analytical nature (e.g. To what lengths should small states go to protect their culture? What options do small states have for development in the contemporary international political economy? Do small states make better democracies? Are small states necessarily weak states?) rather than of an information gathering nature (e.g., How small is Benin? Facts about the small state cultural policies, etc.). Generally, the best papers are structured around answering good empirical or theoretical puzzles - an empirical outcome that we would not expect given our theoretical expectations (e.g., Why do small states do so well against big states?). You are encouraged to evaluate competing answers to your question using detailed and researched factual information from your case studies. 

Ideally, you papers should be between 15-20 pages. Again, please use Times New Roman 12 point font, one inch margins, and provide footnotes and a bibliography. A bibliography is required for a grade, but does not contribute to the total page count.

The paper will be due in my mailbox at 5:00 on the final day of classes. 

Other Expectations:

Late Paper Policy: I will penalize late papers by one half letter grade for each day (or portion thereof) after the deadline. That means that a paper submitted two days after the deadline that would have otherwise received a "B" will receive a "C". Papers submitted five or more days after the deadline will receive an "F." Only students with legitimate and documented medical excuses or personal or family emergencies are exempt from the late penalty. Legitimate excuses include a death in one's immediate family or a serious illness that requires immediate medical attention. Students should obtain a letter confirming these conditions from the academic dean and/or healthcare provider before an extension will be granted.

Your Writing Assignments and Academic Honesty: I expect all students to be familiar with Tufts University's guidelines for academic honesty. Any student who is not familiar with the guidelines should consult, Academic Integrity at Tufts. This pamphlet is available in the Deans' office in Ballou Hall. 

The internet has gotten a lot of students into trouble recently. Too many students have simply cut paragraphs and sentences from sources on the net and pasted them into their papers without appropriate quotation marks or citations. I consider this to be a form plagiarism and completely unacceptable. I would like to make the following two rules perfectly clear at the outset: 

1) Where appropriate, we will be checking your sources. If we find uncited information or have difficulty finding sources for the information that is discussed in your paper, we will not grade it.

2) If you cut and paste anything into your paper illicitly, you will fail the course: no appeal & no exceptions. Guidelines for citing sources correctly from the net can be found at:

You may also wish to purchase the following. While there is no research paper requirement for the class, it is nevertheless good to become comfortable and familiar with a good style guide. Some suggestions are:

Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor, The Columbia Guide to Online Style (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1998).

If you have any questions about basic research, documentation and citation practices, there are many resources available including:

Kate Turabian, Student's Guide for Writing College Papers, (Chicago: Univ of Chicago, 1977)

Joseph F. Trimmer, The Essentials of MLA Style : A Guide to Documentation for Writers of Research Papers (New York: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1998). 

These are available for about $8.00 at: 

Do you have problems writing in English, taking exams or studying? I evaluate all students according to the same standards. If English is not your first language and you are not proficient in standard written English or if you have difficulties studying, you are responsible for seeking assistance at the Academic Resource Center (627-3724). The center offers free peer tutoring, help with writing problems, and workshops on efficient reading, note taking, and time management. You should begin working with a counselor or peer tutor early in the semester. This also applies for students with learning differences. If you have a documented learning difference, however, let me know. In some cases, we can make small, appropriate adjustments to the paper, participation or exam requirements. The center is located at 72 Professors Row and is open Monday-Friday, 9:00-5:00.

Tentative Thematic Outline of the Course


What is a small state? Contradictions and Tradeoffs of the Concept


Small State in the International System
Security and Small State Foreign Policy
International Institutions and Organizations as Small State Resources and Constraints
Small State Diplomacy: Third Parties, Voice of Morality, Unheeded Calls for Change


Small states and the politics of identity: Three perspectives
"Imagined communities"
The nation-state and multiethnic societies
Genocide and small states in the 1990's: What is going on?


Small state's response to external cultural influences
Environmental threats and small states
Do feminist approaches to security tell us something about small states?


Does size affect democracy? Authoritarianism?
Alternatives to Democracy: Liberal Authoritarianism 
Alternatives to Democracy: Clientalism and Predation 


Coping with small internal markets
Small Advanced Industrial Democracies
Changing modes of international finance and the small state


Assignment for Wednesday, January 26: 

Define Small!

The concept of size in the international state system is a highly contested. By what criteria do we decide on the size of states? Do we look at a state's territorial size, the size of its population, its GDP, its cultural influences, the strength of its military? Is size relative? Or does it exist objectively? If size is related to power, then should our categories be relational based on relative power indices? What is power? Our task this week is to identify as many possible areas or confusion and contradiction in the term "small state." 

Your assignment is to identify five candidates for a small state using a different criteria as the defining measure of size. I would like you write one paragraph for each state in which you identify the criteria you used and explain its relevance to that small state. Given each definition, is the small size a liability for the small state or does it offer any opportunities and advantages? 

I expect you to assemble some basic data on which to base your decisions. Contact the resource librarian at Tisch for potential sources including almanacs, atlases, military information and economic data. In all cases, please be sure to cite your sources thoroughly. Not only is this an essential requirement for all research projects, it will help you find data later in the semester when you put together your final research paper.

To assist you with the definitions, I am providing the following readings. Each makes an attempt at categorizing small states. These readings and your papers will serve as the basis of class discussion, so be sure to identify how each author conceptualizes his definition of a small state.

David Vital, "The Small Power in Conflict," The Survival of Small States: Studies in Small Power/Great Power Conflict (London: Oxford, 1971), pp. 1-13.
Robert O. Koehane, "Lilliputians' Dilemmas: Small States and in International Politics," International Organization 23: 2 (1969): 291-296 on defining size, (skim 297-310).
Paul Sutton & Anthony Payne, ALilliput under Threat: the Security Problems of Small Island and Enclave Developing States,@ Political Studies 16 (1993): 579-593

February 2, 2000: The international system and small states.

International Security: How do small states survive under international anarchy? What kind of survival strategies do they pursue?

Cooperation: Are small states less or more responsible than other states? Are they more likely to free ride or lead?

International Organizations: What do they do for small states? Are they constraints or resources. How should institutions be structured? Do we want power to be reflected in institutions? Or should IO's decide things based on one nation, one vote?

International Society: Why have small states proliferated since 1945? What social perspectives are most suitable for small states? What are the relations between small states and International law?

For a good quick review of basic international relations perspectives, see the following:

Joseph M. Grieco, "Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation," pp. 76-80.
Michael Doyle, "Kant, Liberal Legacies & Foreign Affairs," pp. 95-107
Stephen M. Walt, Alliances: Balancing and Bandwagoning," pp. 108-115.
Robert Keohane, "A Functional Theory of Regimes" pp. 132-138.
Caroline Thomas, "Third World Security," pp. 252-268.

Y in Robert Art and Robert Jervis, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues," 4th ed. (New York: Harper Collins, 1996).

Also read:

Alford, J., "Security Dilemmas Of Small States," World Today 40: 8-9 (1984): 363-369. 

Cropsey S., "The Only Credible Deterrent," Foreign Affairs, 73:2 (March-April 1994): 14-20. 

Sutton, P., Payne, A., "Lilliput Under Threat - The Security Problems Of Small Island And Enclave Developing States," Political Studies 41:1 (December 1993): 579-593 Finish.

Roberto Espindola, "Security Dilemmas," in Clarke,C., Payne,T. eds., Politics, Security, and Development In Small States, (London: Allen & Unwin, 1987), pp. 63-79.

February 9, 2000: Small State Diplomacy and Small Security

Professor Alan Henrickson from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy has nicely agreed to lead our seminar. One of the leading proponents of the study of small states, Professor Henrickson has been instrumental in providing the topic with a forum through the Fletcher Roundtable and has contributed his own observations to the topic. 

This weeks readings focus around professor Henrickson's discussion of small state security and diplomacy and the need for small states to reorient their diplomatic efforts in response changes in global conditions. All authors give particular concern to the small island states of the Caribbean basin

Questions to consider when you do the readings:

How do the authors define small state security?
How has the dominant strategy for achieving small state security changed over time?
What is the role of international organizations in small state security?
How do the authors' perspectives differ from traditional realist perspectives?
How is diplomacy important to achieving security?
Are the observations and prescriptions developed here generalizable to other types of small states? 


Alan K. Henrikson, "Diplomacy and Small States in Today's World," presentation to the Dr. Eric Williams Memorial Lecture Series, Central bank of Trinidad and Tobago, May 22, 1998. Please also skim introductory remarks and following discussion. 

Richard J. Bernal, "Strategic Global Repositioning and Future economic Development in Jamaica," The North-South Agenda 18 (May 1996): mimeo.

Assignment for February 16, 2000

First paper rough drafts: Your first paper is due before class on February 23. 

For February 16th, I would like you to present written rough drafts. 4-7 pages, double spaced, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

I would like these papers to be conceptual - attempting to pull together some of the disparate themes and readings we've covered so far.

Possible Topics include:

Why size matters: Provide a justification for the concept of a small state or an argument that it isn't needed. This paper should attempt to explore the issue of whether small states face qualitatively different problems than other states, hence justifying the need for a concept of small states, or whether small states simply

Define Small: Review the problems and paradoxes of defining small states. Be sure to develop and justify your own definition or method for deciding small states.

International Relations Theory and Small States: How do the major perspectives of IR theory apply to small states? Briefly summarize one or more off these approaches. What do these theories tell us about the constraints and opportunities facing small states in the contemporary world?

Small State Diplomacy: How can small states get what they want in the contemporary world? What diplomatic resources and / or forms exist that can be used by small states? What problems does each form of diplomacy present?

You may of course choose to alter these topics or select related topics. 

Please come to class on Wednesday with your rough drafts ready for presentation. I will ask each of you to present your paper (please don't read it) in FIVE minutes or less. We will then spend ten to fifteen minutes discussing each argument. Using these suggestions and insights, you should then rewrite the paper to be turned in the following week. The best 2 papers, if they are really good, will be presented on our panel at the Conference on Small States at the end of March. 

February 23, 2000 - Size and Democracy

Papers due at the start of class: These are analytical!!! Be sure to identify you question and make a clear argument in response.

Having spent two weeks in the realm of international relations, security and diplomacy, next week we open the state with a look at size and democracy.

Questions to consider:

What is democracy? Why do democratic states work? Why do they fail?

Is there an optimal size for a democratic state?

Do small democracies face greater challenges than large democracies?

Are different democratic forms appropriate for different sizes countries?

Do small states have a unique >political culture=? If so, what are the advantages and disadvantages of small state political culture?


Robert A. Dahl & Edward R. Tufte, Size and Democracy, (Stanford: Stanford U., 1973), pp. 1-65; 137-144.

Larry Diamond and Svetlana Tsalik, "Size and Democracy: The Case for Decentralization,@ in Larry Diamond, Developing Democracy Toward Consolidation, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1999), pp.117-160.

Paul Sutton, "Political Aspects," in Colin Clarke and Tony Payne, eds., Politics, Security and Development in Small States (London: Allen & Unwin, 1987), pp. 3-25.

David Lowenthal, "Social Features," in Clarke & Payne., eds., pp. 26-49.

"The Future Of Parliamentary Democracy In Small States," Parliamentarian 67:4 (October 1986): 202-205.

March 1, 2000 - Small State Proliferation: An Historical View

This week we will have Fletcher PhD Student Mattias Maas, join us for the second 2/3rds of class. Michael is doing a study on the number of states in the international system throughout time and will present us his empirical findings. We will then have a brain storming session on hypotheses that might helps explain his findings. The readings this week are brief. I've assigned an interesting article on evolutionary biology to help give a fresh perspective on the proliferation of species. Then we have Michael's own dispute with Juan Enriquez in the pages of Foreign Policy.

We will spend the first hour of class going into the topic of democracy and small states in greater depth. 

Stephen Jay Gould, "The Iconography of an Expectation," Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale And The Nature Of History (New York: W.W. Norton, 1989), pp. 23-52.

Juan Enriquez, "Too Many Flags?" Foreign Policy, (Fall 1999): 30-49.

Michael Maas, "Letter to the Editor," Foreign Policy, (Winter 1999-2000): 169-170.

March 8, 2000 - Perspectives on Identity and Nationalism 

We have already noted that the contemporary international environment might be historically favorable for the creation of small states. But why do people's want to create small states. Geography clearly plays a role and is especially reflected in the creation of small island states. But there must also be demand for smaller political units. This week we begin to look at one possible factor driving demand: that warm fuzzy "we feeling" called "identity." We will be looking at identity and two aspects of identity: ethnicity and nationalism in an attempt to see if there is anything inherently characteristic about small state identities. 

Questions to consider are: What are the sources and bases of identity? How is identity manifested in small states? How does identity help build states? How does identity conflict drive the dissolution states? Is there anything particularly characteristic about small state identity when compared to large state identity? Is nationalism in large states different from nationalism in small states? 


Karen Ballentine, "The Making of Nations and the Unmaking of the Soviet Union, " Harriman Review, (December 1995): 14-24.

I'm most interested in Ballentine's analytical framework. Read this article carefully in order to identify the three approaches for looking at nationalism. The stuff about the breakup of the Soviet Union is secondary for now, but don't ignore it completely.

Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1983), pp. 37-112; 141-154;187-206: skim rest.

A classic. All about nationalism and the crafting of nation states. What does it tell us about nationalism, state proliferation and size?

March 15, 2000 - Ethnicity and Genocide in Rwanda

At most times and in most places, ethnicity and nationalism manifest themselves in quotidian, mundane ways. On occasion, however, and particularly in the postwar world, they contribute to intense inter-community violence. This week and following spring break we take a look at two recent examples - Rwanda and the Balkans. Both are examples of ethnic groups living within the same political space. Questions we will consider include, why did ethnic slaughter arise in these times and places? How was it orchestrated? Did the size of the political space have anything to do with it? Could such slaughter have occurred in a larger setting? Is this a case of >small state political culture= gone bad? Finally, what do we do about it? Is the solution separation and creation of ethnically homogeneous nation states? Or can we devise strategies and institutions that might make multi-ethnic societies possible in the future?


Philip Gourevitch, We Regret to Inform you that Tomorrow we will be Killed with our Families: Stories from Rwanda, (New York: Picador USA, 1998), all by the end of Spring break but with special attention to 1-62 for next Wednesday. 

Jeremy Sarkin, The Necessity and Challenges of Establishing a Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Rwanda" Human Rights Quarterly 21:3 (August 1999): 767-823.

Assignment for March 29, 2000

Second paper due: Your second paper is due before class on March 29. Please also be prepared to present your paper in class.

As before, 4-7 pages, double spaced, 12 point Times New Roman Font.

Generally, I would like you to follow up on your initial paper with a researched test case of some aspect of your first paper. However, if you are unhappy with this and would like to start over in a new direction, you may feel free to do so.

Please come to class on Wednesday ready to make a presentation. I will ask each of you to present your paper (please don't read it) in FIVE minutes or less. We will then spend ten to fifteen minutes discussing each argument. Bryan and Tal will go first! 

The best 2 papers, if they are really good, will be presented on our panel at the Conference on Small States on Sunday morning, April 2. 

Your presentations should:

Clearly Identify your research question
Suggest hypotheses for possible answers
Summarize your case study findings
Relate how these findings support or weaken your hypotheses.

There is no reading over break, but I would urge you to finish Gourevitch.

If you would like to read ahead, I suggest: 

Paul Krugman, The Return of Depression Economics (New York: WW Norton, 1999)

Assignment for April 5, 2000

We are going to turn to the questions of Small States in the Global Economy. For Next week, we are going to do some background reading by Paul Krugman, a leading economist, on the political and economic parameters of the modern international political economy. The next week, we will be looking at the issue of policy choices for small, developed and developing states in the contemporary world. We will then turn to wider questions of globalization.

Krugman's reading for this week asks whether we really have to kill an economy to save it? By "depression economics," he's partially referring to the price an economy must pay to ensure holders of mobile capital that it is a safe haven. If this problem hurts even the large economies, what choices do the small economies have? How are small state vulnerability and volatility raised or reduced by capital markets integration? How can they cope with the extraordinary volatility of private capital flows? 

Read the book. It's fast, informative and fun. Pay special attention to chapter 9.

Paul Krugman, The Return of Depression Economics (New York: WW Norton, 1999).

Reading Assignments for April 19, 2000

Globalization and Small States

This week, we have a series of articles on selected topics of Globalization. In the first two readings we revisit the Asian Financial crisis with a former World Bank economist's harsh critique of IMF policies in the region. This is followed by a survey of the difficulties faced by small developing states as they undergo IMF-induced "therapy" and a rambling Jeffery Sachs trying to "save capitalism" in the pages of the economist!

We then turn to Thomas Friedman's theses/musings on globalization. It is globalization or globalony? And what are the implications for small states?

Finally, we look at states and multinational corporations. Is this a mutually beneficial relationship or a zero-sum bargaining game. Readings from Shar Tarzi and Robert Riech help us decide.


Joseph Stiglitz, "The Insider: What I learned at the World Economic Crisis," The New Republic, April 17, 2000.

"IMF Programs Increase Poverty" The Development Gap, NGO webpage based on an IMF memorandum.

Waldon Bello, "What is the IMF's Agenda for Asia?" Focus on the Global South, no. 22, (January 27, 1998).

Jeffrey Sachs, "Global Capitalism, Making it Work" The Economist, (September 12, 1998).

Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: arer, 1999), Chapters 8-9.

Robert Reich, "Who is Us?" in Robert Art and Robert Jervis, eds., International Politics 4th ed., (New York: HarperCollins, 1996), pp. 352-366.

Shah M. Tarzi, "Third World Governments and Multinational Corporations," International Relations, (May 1991): 237-249.

Debroah Spar, "The Spotlight and the Bottom Line" Foreign Affairs 77:2, pp. 7-12.

Final Papers Due Last day of Classes

Bibliography on Small States:
(by topic and in reverse chronological order)

1. Small State Security and the International System:

General IR Theory and Security

Martin Libicki, "Rethinking War: The Mouse's New War?" Foreign Policy (Winter 1999-2000): 30-43.

David Baldwin, ed., Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, (New York: Columbia), 1993. Tisch/ Ginn JX1395 .N385 1993 

David Baldwin, Paradoxes of Power (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989). Available through Inter library loan (ILL)

Elman, M.F., "The Foreign Policies of Small States: Challenging Neorealism in its own Back Yard," British Journal of Political Science 25 (1995): 171-217. 

Clarke,C., Payne,T., Politics, Security, and Development In Small States, (London: Allen & Unwin, 1987). Ginn, JC365 .P65 1987 

Alford, J., "Security Dilemmas Of Small States," World Today 40: 8-9 (1984): 363-369. 
Frei, D., "Introduction - The Problem Of Dependence In The Security Policies Of Small States," Issues & Studies 19:3 (1983): 56-74. 

Handel, M.I., Weak States In The International System (London: F. Cass, 1981). Tisch JX1395 .H298 1981. 

Vital, D., The Survival Of Small States: Studies In Small Power/Great Power Conflict (London: Oxford University Press, 1971). Ginn, JC365 .V54. 

Trygve Mathisen, The Functions of Small States in the Strategies of the Great Powers, (Oslo: Scandinavian Univ. Books, 1971). Tisch, JC365 .m33 

Case studies

De Silva Km, "Sri Lanka: The Security Problems Of A Small State," Defence And Peace Economics 10:4 (1999): 361-381 ILL

Cohen, SA., "Small States And Their Armies: Restructuring The Militia Framework Of The Israel Defense Force," Journal Of Strategic Studies 18:4 (December 1995): 78-93. 

Newman D., Falah G., "Small State Behaviour: On The Formation Of A Palestinian State In The West Bank And Gaza Strip," Canadian Geographer 39:3 (Fall 1995): 219-234. ILL

Alalkim,H.H, Nonneman, G., "The GCC States In An Unstable World - Foreign-Policy Dilemmas Of Small States," International Affairs 71:2 (April 1995):423-424. 

Cropsey S., "The Only Credible Deterrent," Foreign Affairs, 73:2 (March-April 1994): 14-20. 

Sutton, P., Payne, A., "Lilliput Under Threat - The Security Problems Of Small Island And Enclave Developing States," Political Studies 41:1 (December 1993): 579-593 

Falk, R., "The Cruelty Of Geopolitics - The Fate Of Nation And State In The Middle-East," Millennium-Journal Of International Studies 20:3 (Winter 1991): 383-393. ILL

3. Diplomacy and Small States

Hong, M., "Small States in the United-Nations," International Social Science Journal 47:2 (June 1995): 277-287. ILL 

Hoadley J.S., "Small States As Aid Donors," International Organization 34:1(1980): 121-137. 

Gitelson, S.A., "Policy Options For Small States - Kenya And Tanzania Reconsidered," Studies In Comparative International Development 12:2 (1977): 29-57. 

Hirsch, M. "Influence Without Power - Small States In European Politics," World Today 32:3 (1976): 112-118. 

Park, C. J., "Influence Of Small States Upon Superpowers - United-States South-Korean Relations As A Case Study, 1950-53," World Politics 28:1 (1975): 97-117. 

4. Regionalism, Integration and Small States

Raker, R., "Small, Isolated States: In A Rapidly Reconfiguring World: Challenge, Threat Or Incentive?" Public Administration And Development 18:2 (May 1998): 107-122. 

Kloti, U., Vondosenrode, S., "Adaptation To European Integration - Changes In The Administration Of 4 Small States," Australian Journal of Public Administration 54:2 (June 1995): 273-281. ILL

5. Domestic Political Institutions

Larry Diamond and Svetlana Tsalik, "Size and Democracy: The Case for Decentralization, in Larry Diamond, Developing Democracy Toward Consolidation, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1999), pp.117-160.

"The Future Of Parliamentary Democracy In Small States," Parliamentarian 67:4 (October 1986): 202-205. 

Robert A. Dahl & Edward R. Tufte, Size and Democracy (Stanford: Stanford University, 1973). Tisch JC364 .D33 

6. Ethnic Homogeneity and Small State Stability

Anckar D., "Homogeneity and Smallness: Dahl and Tufte Revisited," Scandinavian Political Studies 22:1 (March 1999): 29-44. ILL

Philip Gourevitch, We Wish to inform you that Tommorrow we will be Killed with our Families: Stories from Rwanda, (New York: Picador, 1999). On Order at Tufts Book Store

Matlosa, K., "Democracy and Conflict in Post-Apartheid Southern Africa: Dilemmas of Social Change in Small States," International Affairs 74:2 (April 1998): 319+. 

Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, (London: Verso, 1991). On order at Tufts Book Store

7. Small States the Global Economy and Development

Paul Krugman, The Return of Depression Economics, (New York: WW Noton, 1999). On order at Tufts Book Store

small advanced industrial states

Schwartz, H., "Small States In Big Trouble - State Reorganization In Australia, Denmark, New-Zealand, And Sweden in the 1980s," World Politics 46:4 (July 1994): 525-555. 

Peter J. Katzenstein, Small States in World Markets: Industrial Policy in Europe (Ithaca: Cornell. 1985). Tisch, HD3616.E8 K37 1985 

Holl, O. ed., Small States In Europe And Dependence (Laxenburg, Austria: Austrian Institute for International Affairs, 1983). Tisch, JC365 .S58 1983 

small states and development

Armstrong, HW, Read R,., "Trade And Growth In Small States: The Impact Of Global Trade Liberalisation," World Economy 21:4 (June 1998): 563-585 

Good D.F., "The Economic Lag Of Central And Eastern-Europe - Income Estimates For The Habsburg Successor States, 1870-1910," Journal Of Economic History 54:4 (December 1994): 869-891. ILL

McKee, D., ed., External Linkages And Growth In Small Economies (Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1994). Tisch HC59.7 .E98 1994 

Lockhart, D.G. et al., eds., The Development Process In Small Island States (New York: Routledge, 1993). Tisch, HC59 .D462 1993 

Worrell, D., Bourne, C., eds., Economic Adjustment Policies For Small Nations: Theory And Experience In The English-Speaking Caribbean (New York: Praeger, 1989. Ginn, HC151 .E36 1989 

Thomas, C.Y., The Poor And The Powerless: Economic Policy And Change In The Caribbean (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1988). Tisch, HC151 .T56 1988 

Jalan, B. Problems And Policies In Small Economies (New York : St. Martin's, 1982). Tisch HC59 .P6735 1982

Small states versus transnational corporations

Spar, D.L., "The Spotlight and the Bottom Line: How Multinationals Export Human Rights," Foreign Affairs (march/April 1998): 7-12. 

Dicken, P. "The Reopke Lecture in Economic Geography: Global﷓Local Tensions: Firms and States in the Global Space Economy," Economic Geography 70:2 (April 1994): 101﷓128. 

Doner, R. F. Driving a Bargain: Automobile Industrialization and Japanese Firms in Southesat Asia. (Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1991). Ginn HD9710.A7852 D66 

Kobrin, S. J.,"Testing the Bargaining Hypothesis in the Manufacturing Sector in Developing Countries," International Organization 41:4 (Autumn 1987): 609﷓638. 

Goodman, L.W., Small Nations, Giant Firms (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1987). Tisch, HD2755.5 .G66 1987 

Shah M. Tarzi, "Third World Governments and Multinational Corporations: The Dynamics of Host's Bargaining Power," in Frieden J. and Lake, D,. International political Economy: Perspectives on Global Wealth and Power, 3rd edition (New Yor: St. Martin's, 1995), pp. 154-164.

Bennett, D.C., Sharpe, K.E., "Agenda Setting and Bargaining Power: The Mexican State versus Transnational Automobile Corporations," World Politics 32:1 (October 1979): 57﷓89. 

Moran., H. Multinational Corporations and the Politics of Dependence: Copper in Chile (Princeton: Princeton University press, 1971). Tisch HD69.I7 M59 1975 

8. Culture and Globalization

"United States, Globalisation And The Pokemon," The Economist, November 20, 1999.

Brunn SD, Cottle CD, "Small States And Cyberboosterism," Geographical Review 87:2 240-258 (April 1997): 240-258. 

Griswold, A., "Press Concentration And Media Policy In Small Countries - Austria And Ireland Compared," European Journal Of Communication 11:4 (December 1996) 485-509. ILL

"How Can Small States Maintain Financial Security And Independence And Preserve Their National Identities?" Parliamentarian 67:4 (October 1986): 198-199. 

Wallis, R., Big Sounds From Small Peoples: The Music Industry In Small Countries (London: Constable, 1984). Music Stacks ML3790 .W3 1984b

9. Environment & Sustainable Development of Small States

Haas, P. M., et al., Institutions for the Earth: sources of Effective International Environmental Protection, (London, MIT, 1994). Ginn/Tisch TD170.2 .I556 1993

Small Islands, Big Issues : Crucial Issues In The Sustainable Development Of Small Developing Islands (Helsinki: UNU/World Institute for Development Economics Research, 1995). Ginn, JX1977.84 .W66 no.1 1994