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Undergraduate Program

Department Courses

The list below includes descriptions of all the courses the department offers, though some courses may be taught more often than others. Descriptions for special topics seminars (PSY 196) are updated each semester. Please consult SIS for an official list of updated prerequisites for each course, as well as distribution area and semester-hour credit information.

Undergraduate Courses

PSYCHOLOGY 1 (Introduction to Psychology)
This course will survey current knowledge of human behavior. It will cover the entire spectrum of behavioral functions and examine the biological, cognitive and social processes that underlie these behaviors. Topics will include the brain and functioning of the nervous system, perception, thinking, learning and memory; conscious and unconscious motivations and emotion; language, intelligence, cognitive, social, and personality development; social perceptions, attitudes and social influence; psychological disorders and their treatment; and mental health. The focus of the course will be on understanding the major theories of human behavior and on understanding the practical and theoretical implications of these positions.

PSYCHOLOGY 9 (Introduction to Cognitive and Brain Science)
Survey of the cognitive, computational and neuronal basis of thought. Topics include the relationship of cognitive and brain systems underlying language, memory, perception, attention, consciousness and development. Students interested in PSY 9 are expected to first take PSY 1 in order to best prepare them for the course.

PSYCHOLOGY 11 (Developmental Psychology)
A survey of behavioral, mental, and socio-emotional development during childhood from birth through adolescence. General principles of development and related empirical findings will be emphasized. Class will include lectures, demonstrations, and observations of children.

PSYCHOLOGY 12 (Abnormal Psychology)
An introduction to the adult major psychological and psychiatric disorders. The symptoms and signs of psychosis, affective disorders and anxiety disorders will be discussed. The way these symptoms and signs constellate into various syndromes (e.g. schizophrenia, major depression), as defined in the DSM-IV, will be considered. Finally, for each of these syndromes, an introduction to the etiology (causes) and an overview of biopsychosocial management approaches will be presented.

PSYCHOLOGY 13 (Social Psychology)
Social psychology is the scientific study of the way people think, feel, and behave in social situations. It involves understanding how we influence, and are influenced by, other people and the social contexts around us. A primary goal of this course is to introduce you to the perspectives, research methods, and seminal findings of the field of social psychology. Equally important is the goal of allowing you to cultivate your skills for analyzing the social situations and events that you encounter in your everyday lives. Lectures will be supplemented by classroom demonstrations, discussion, and various assignments.

PSYCHOLOGY 15 (Theories of Personality)
This course is an overview of the various classes of personality theory: psychosocial conflict theories (Freud, neo-Freudians, and social learning theorists); intrapsychic conflict theory (Jung); cognitive and self theories (Lewin, Rogers); and role theory (Sarbin, Goffman). The lectures begin with the purposes of theory and the role of genetics in laying the groundwork for personality differences. The goal of the course is to familiarize students with major figures in personality theory so they will enjoy reading critically on their own.

PSYCHOLOGY 17 (Industrial/Organizational Psychology)
This course examines the roles, contributions and limitations of psychology in business and industrial organizations. Topics will include motivation of employees, classical and current approaches to management, group dynamics and consumer psychology. Students will select a contemporary issue in the field; present an overview to the class and submit a research paper on the topic.

PSYCHOLOGY 22 (Emotion)
Introduction to theory and research on the nature of emotion and its regulation. Topics include defining and measuring emotion and related constructs; theories of emotion elicitation, expression, and regulation; perspectives on the function of emotions; discrete emotions such as joy, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust; emotion across cultural, developmental, and clinical contexts; the neural, endocrine, and autonomic concomitants of emotion.

PSYCHOLOGY 25 (Physiological Psychology)
This course will serve as an introduction to the biological basis of behavior. The course will begin by providing a basic understanding of the function of the nervous system. With this knowledge in hand, the physiological basis of behaviors such as hunger, thirst, sex, aggression, sleep, learning and memory will be explored. Special attention will be paid to recent advances in research in the growing area of biopsychology. This course is not meant for Biology or Bio-Psychology majors or for pre-medical students. Those students should take Psychology 103. (Students cannot receive credit for both PSY 25 and PSY 103).

PSYCHOLOGY 26 (Animal Learning and Cognition)
This course is an introduction to the study of cognition in animals. Through lectures and classroom discussion, questions such as the following will be examined. How can and do animals think without language? Do rats use cognitive "maps" to get around their spatial environment? How do bees learn and remember where rich sources of food are located? How do animals communicate information to one another? What do birds and other animals see when they look out at the visual world? The course will survey the fundamental principles and theories of learning and information processing in animals. Topics to be examined will include conditioning and memory processes, orientation in space and time, visual perception, stimulus selection and control, memory, and self-awareness in animals. This course fulfills the 20-level requirement for the advanced course in Animal Learning and Cognition, which also will be offered by Dr. Cook in the Spring.

PSYCHOLOGY 27 (Perception)
This course will offer an introduction to the processes that transform physical energies (e.g., light, sound, heat) into psychological experiences (e.g., seeing objects, hearing noises, feeling warmth). These processes are crucial for the basic survival of all animal species; understanding them is central to the field of human psychology not only for this reason but because they are prerequisite to the functioning of "higher" psychological processes such as thinking, socializing, playing games, and appreciating art and music. Major emphasis will be on visual perception, but topics such as hearing, speech perception, active touch, pain perception, and the chemical senses will also be covered. Special issues such as the development of perceptual abilities, perception in animals, pathologies of perception, and perception's role in art and music will be incorporated, too. This course fulfills the 20-level requirement for the Psychology Major. For psychology majors, Psychology 27 fulfills the department's requirement that majors take a "20's" level course. Psychology 27 also suffices as a prerequisite to Psychology 41 (the advanced laboratory course in perception and cognition) and other advanced courses on related topics. Psychology 27 can count as a "natural science" course for the basic distribution requirement.

PSYCHOLOGY 28 (Cognitive Psychology)
An introduction to human mental processes. Attention, perception, problem solving, pattern recognition, imagery, memory retention, language comprehension, and knowledge acquisition are examined as fundamental processes of cognition. This course serves as the gateway course to introduce our advanced laboratories and seminar courses in cognition. Lecture and frequent classroom demonstrations.

PSYCHOLOGY 31 (Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences)
From the behavioral scientist's perspective, statistics are tools that can be used to detect systematic patterns in sets of data, and guide decision- making. In this course you will learn about statistics that allow a researcher to describe and summarize data and distinguish between chance and systematic effects in typical experimental contexts. To facilitate learning through hands-on experience, EACH STUDENT IS REQUIRED TO ENROLL IN ONE OF FOUR LABORATORY SECTIONS. Labs will involve application of the concepts and procedures discussed in class that week, and many will involve use of the SPSS statistical package.

PSYCHOLOGY 32 (Experimental Psychology)
This is the basic laboratory course which serves as the prerequisite for the advanced labs. Students will participate in individual and group experiments designed to familiarize them with the research methods and apparatus used in psychological investigations. There are two lectures plus a 2.5-hour laboratory each week. Enrolling in PSY 32A, PSY 32B, or PSY 32C registers you for both the lecture and laboratory components of the course.

PSYCHOLOGY 36 (Experimental Social Psychology)
This course focuses on the process of designing, conducting, interpreting, and presenting empirical research in social psychology. Students will be exposed to several different methods used in social psychological research, with an emphasis on true experiments. The use of these methods will be illustrated through readings and discussions of classic and contemporary research in social psychology. Class projects will provide students with hands-on experience in implementing these techniques. In the main part of the course, students will form research teams with the task of conducting empirical research on a topic of their choice.

PSYCHOLOGY 37 (Research Methods in Developmental Psychology)
Why do kids do what they do? How can we know what is going on in an infant's head? How can we find out what preschoolers are thinking about or understand? This laboratory course is designed to build on students' introductory work in developmental psychology by offering "hands on" experience with the special research procedures researchers use to study infants' and children's thinking and behavior. During the semester, we will read about, discuss, design, and conduct research on several different topics, all generally within the area of cognitive development. These topics will illustrate a range of developmental research methods, and we may also have an opportunity to observe some clinical testing and applied work with children as well. Course assignments will include "standard" lab reports, a number of smaller writing assignments, and a variety of practical tasks related to setting up our research projects. Please note that students planning to take Psy 37 must register for both the course and the lab section. We will not always meet the full extent of both of these time blocks, but we will use their full extents during the weeks we are testing children, hence the extra ("bonus?") time requirement.

PSYCHOLOGY 38 (Research Methods in Clinical Psychology)
This course will teach the methods of clinical research as well as provide the experience of analyzing data. We will cover topics such as experimental design, diagnostic reliability, epidemiologic methods, data analysis, and the preparation of research reports. The use of computers in clinical research will be introduced.

PSYCHOLOGY 40 (Physiological Psychology Lab)
This laboratory course is designed to introduce students to many of the research techniques employed in physiological psychology. Particular emphasis is placed on the examination of the anatomy and functional dynamics of the central nervous system with respect to behavior. Experiments investigating the physiological basis of feeding behavior, sexual behavior, learning and memory will be conducted. Techniques to be learned will include stereotaxic surgery, electrode implantation, brain stimulation and lesioning, neurohistology, and neurochemical assays. The course will have one lecture meeting and one laboratory session per week.

PSYCHOLOGY 41 (Perception and Cognition Laboratory)
This course will examine mental processing. It will focus on how our minds work when we think, reason, remember, learn, solve problems, perceive objects and understand language. The course will provide an opportunity for participants to learn and use state-of-the-art experimental techniques for studying each of these processes. This experimental work will test current theories of cognitive processing in humans, with particular emphasis on examination of theories and models derived from the fields of cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, artificial intelligence, philosophy, and cognitive-linguistic-mental disorders.

PSYCHOLOGY 42 (Emotion Laboratory)
Laboratory course in which students design, conduct, analyze, interpret, and present original experimental research on the nature of human emotion and its regulation. Students obtain hands-on experience using different methods of measuring emotional responses, including subjective ratings, expressive behavior, and autonomic physiology (e.g., heart rate, skin conductance, respiration). Course assignments typically include reading and thinking critically about classic and contemporary research in emotion; developing hypotheses; practical tasks related to carrying out research projects; writing manuscripts in APA format; and oral presentations.

PSYCHOLOGY 46 (Laboratory in Animal Cognition)
An advanced laboratory course familiarizing the student with the methods and strategies used to study cognition in animals. Several experiments examining an important topic area in animal cognition will be conducted over the semester. The course consists of weekly class discussions and analyses of the ongoing experiments and their relations to other experiments in the area. These discussions will result in several APA-style write-ups of the experiments as they progress over the semester. Besides regular class meetings, all students need to be prepared to spend time outside of class to conduct the experimental sessions.

PSYCHOLOGY 48 (Psychopharmacology Lab)
This laboratory course provides direct, pre-clinical experience with experimental strategies and methods in psychopharmacology, using animal subjects. Students will investigate how drugs affect various behavior patterns and how behavioral processes can be elucidated using drugs as research tools. Topics may include experimental procedures demonstrating the effects of drugs on motor and sensory process, behavioral measures of memory, anxiety, depression and psychosis, and the self-administration of drugs by animals. Using the mastery teaching method, students will recreate classic experiments and ready themselves for independent research in psychopharmacology.

PSYCHOLOGY 49 (Psychophysiology Lab)
This laboratory course is designed to introduce students to some of the procedures used to study the electrophysiological manifestation of psychological processes in humans. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of brain wave techniques (EEG and event-related brain potentials - ERPs). Techniques to be learned will include application of electrodes, use of computers in collecting electrophysiological data and quantification of electrophysiological data. Students enrolled in this course will conduct their own brain wave experiments on human subjects.

PSYCHOLOGY 51 (Black Psychology)
An examination of Black perspectives in Psychology. The adequacy for Black people of various psychological models. Other topics: the history of racism in the behavioral sciences, psychological assessment, personality and motivation, education, and racism in the medical field.

PSYCHOLOGY 53 (Engineering Psychology)
Survey of the applied areas of psychology which have proven useful in the design of equipment for human use and in the design of human-machine systems. This course is offered at a beginning or survey level and is conducted as a lecture course with additional readings. The emphasis is on how humans process information and how psychological science can further inform each stage of information processing. Examples are drawn from a wide range of areas. Most of the students in the course will be majoring in Engineering Psychology, but non-majors are welcome and typically come from Biology, Psychology, Economics, Sociology, Physics, Pre-med, and Engineering.

PSYCHOLOGY 55 (Human Sexual Behavior)
Sex and sexuality are topics which are studied in many different ways. This course reflects that diversity by considering the biological, developmental, clinical and social aspects of sex and sexuality. Topics will include cross-cultural surveys of sexual behavior, sexual differentiation, sexual physiology, contraception, STDs, sexual dysfunction and therapy, sexual orientation, gender, and various legal issues that revolve around sexual topics.

PSYCHOLOGY 56 (Drugs and Behavior)
Introductory examination of how drugs, toxins, food additives, and other chemicals alter human behavior. Topics may include historical and societal views of drug use, drugs for recreational purposes, alcohol, medicinal drugs, drugs in food and food as drugs, and environmental toxins; theories of why drugs are used and reasons for prescribing psychoactive drugs.

PSYCHOLOGY 57 (Nutrition and Behavior)
Introduction to the interaction between nutrition and behavior. Nutritional variables that may influence psychological functioning; effects of specific nutrients on behavior. Specific topics to be cover include: obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia; effects of vitamins and minerals on behavior; role of protein malnutrition in intellectual development; and potential effects of food additives, including sugar on psychological processes. This course is not designed for students with a background in biology. Those students should take Psychology 128.

PSYCHOLOGY 58 (Psychology of Sports)
The purpose of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the application of general psychological theories to sports, and to sensitize students to the special needs and issues of athletes. An equal emphasis will be placed upon theory, research, and applied sport psychology.

PSYCHOLOGY 64 (Introduction to Linguistics)
(Cross-listed as Phil 15 and Ling 15.) How humans encode language in their brains, so that they can produce and understand an unlimited variety of utterances in context. Language and other forms of communication; how children acquire language; biological basis of language; the structure of language -- phonology (sound structure), syntax (grammatical structure), and semantics (meaning).

PSYCHOLOGY 71 (Clinical Methods)
Basic clinical concepts and skills, such as the helping relationship, interviewing, history taking, psychological testing, their theoretical and empirical basis and appropriate application of the basic skills.

PSYCHOLOGY 80 (The Psychology of Music)
(Cross-listed as Music 59.) Examination of a wide rage of topics in the psychology of music. Music perception; music cognition; music aesthetics; music and emotions; the influence of music on human behavior; the nature and measurement of musical abilities; music education and child development.

PSYCHOLOGY 91 (Research in Psychology) – Fall
Fall semester listing for students who wish to participate in an ongoing program of research. The student is expected to do background reading relevant to the research and to participate in as many phases of the research as possible. Students interested in PSY 91 should speak with potential faculty supervisors far in advance of course registration period. Pre-requisites: Two courses in Psychology and consent of the supervising faculty member.

PSYCHOLOGY 92 (Research in Psychology) – Spring
Spring semester listing for students who wish to participate in an ongoing program of research. The student is expected to do background reading relevant to the research and to participate in as many phases of the research as possible. Students interested in PSY 92 should speak with potential faculty supervisors far in advance of course registration period. Pre-requisites: Two courses in Psychology and consent of the supervising faculty member.

PSYCHOLOGY 97 (Readings in Psychology) – Fall
Fall semester listing for supervised readings course mutually arranged by a student and a faculty member. The goal of the course is to enable the student to become better informed on a specialized topic within psychology that is not otherwise covered by the departmental curriculum. Writing assignments are typically expected. Students interested in PSY 97 should speak with potential faculty supervisors far in advance of course registration period, and should be prepared to provide an annotated bibliography for review. Pre-requisites: Two courses in Psychology and consent of the supervising faculty member.

PSYCHOLOGY 98 (Readings in Psychology) – Spring
Spring semester listing for supervised readings course mutually arranged by a student and a faculty member. The goal of the course is to enable the student to become better informed on a specialized topic within psychology that is not otherwise covered by the departmental curriculum. Writing assignments are typically expected. Students interested in PSY 98 should speak with potential faculty supervisors far in advance of course registration period, and should be prepared to provide an annotated bibliography for review. Pre-requisites: Two courses in Psychology and consent of the supervising faculty member.

PSYCHOLOGY 99 (Internship in Psychology)
Internship in settings (hospitals, clinics, schools, non-Tufts laboratories) where work is primarily psychological. Written work is required, whether in the form of a semester-long journal or final paper. Grading is pass/fail, but the course may be used as an elective for psychology majors. Students interested in PSY 99 should speak with potential faculty supervisors far in advance of course registration period and obtain signature from department chair on PSY 99 Internship Approval Form (available on department website). Pre-requisites: Completion of relevant coursework, prior consent of a supervising faculty member, signed PSY 99 Internship Approval Form.

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Undergraduate & Graduate Courses

PSYCHOLOGY 103 (Brain and Behavior)
This course, like its companion course, Psychology 25, explores the physiological bases of behavior. It differs from Psychology 25 in assuming that the student has a biology background and would like to go into the neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms of behavior in more depth. (Students cannot receive credit for both PSY 25 and PSY 103). Psychology 103 also focuses on current research in the various areas of Biopsychology and future directions for research and its applications. General topic areas include: the nervous system, vision, neurological disorders, sexual behavior, hunger, thirst, sleep, aggression, reward mechanisms and addiction, learning and memory, and psychopathology.

PSYCHOLOGY 104 (Advanced Seminar in Physiological Psychology)
A seminar on selected topics in the physiological basis of behavior. Students will be expected to write or present papers. Exact topic choices determined by interests of the instructor and students.

PSYCHOLOGY 105 (Psychoanalysis)
Development and evolution of psychoanalytic psychology from its beginnings to the present. Topics include: unconscious motivation; dreams; personality development and dynamics; ego psychology, object relations theory and self-psychology; dynamics of symptom formation; treatment approaches; and critique of psychoanalytic theories and methods. Emphasis on psychoanalysis as a developmental psychology and relationship to general psychology. Psychoanalytic theories of personality development, psychopathology and treatment have had significant impact upon hypothesis development, theory, research and clinical application in general psychology. Psychoanalysis is also often a focus of significant critique from other approaches. However, psychoanalysis is rarely taught as a body of thought from original sources. This course aims to provide upper level psychology majors and interested graduate students (as well as upper level students in other areas) sufficient background to be able to understand the impact of psychoanalysis on general psychology and evaluate its heuristic usefulness.

PSYCHOLOGY 106 (Seminar in Clinical Psychology)
Most of this course will focus on the various theories and techniques of psychotherapy through readings and case studies. Other aspects of clinical psychology such as psychological assessment, professional ethics, and pathways towards becoming a psychotherapist will also be considered. Students will be responsible for active participation in a seminar format.
Please note that non-clinical majors may show up to the first course meeting to see if additional spots are available, but priority for enrollment given to Clinical Psych majors.

PSYCHOLOGY 107 (Advanced Statistics I)
Introduction to probability theory and the logical basis of statistical inference. Binomial and normal models are examined. Analysis of variance models are introduced with consideration of their implication in research design. Some nonparametric tests are considered.

PSYCHOLOGY 108 (Advanced Statistics II)
This course builds upon the material covered in Psychology 107 (Advanced Statistics I). The bulk of the course will focus on ANOVA and regression models appropriate for the analysis of a variety of experimental designs. In addition, we will overview a range of multivariate and nonparametric techniques.

PSYCHOLOGY 109 (Seminar in Cognitive Behavior Therapy)
Cognitive and behavioral approaches to understanding and modifying behavior and thought patterns in adults, children, couples, and families, in both outpatient and institutional settings.

PSYCHOLOGY 110 (Computers in Psychology)
Computers are indispensable tools for research in psychology, and especially so in cognitive science. While most students are competent users of standard software such as word processing or spreadsheets, the real power of the computer is unleashed when we are able to program it ourselves. In addition, learning to program in one language makes learning additional languages (such as R, Matlab, or C++) much easier. This course is aimed at people who have no previous experience in computer programming. It will cover some elementary principles of computer science, and writing basic programs in the programming language Python. The goals of the course are that the student is able to a) perform elementary data management, statistical analyses, and simulations using Python programming, and b) enjoy doing so.

PSYCHOLOGY 111 (Psychiatric Medication in Children)
The number of children diagnosed with serious mental illness like bipolar disorder is on the rise. Treatment of these illnesses includes mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, stimulants, antidepressants and some therapy. Do these drugs affect the developing brain? Do these drugs permanently affect the brain? Are these drugs even effective in children? These questions and others will be addressed in this seminar course.

PSYCHOLOGY 112 (Biological Bases of Psychopathology)
Exploration of current research and theory concerning neuropathology, neurotransmitter systems, genetics, psychophysiology, and medication treatment in selected major mental disorders.

PSYCHOLOGY 113 (Advanced Social Psychology)
This advanced seminar is devoted to closer analysis of social psychological theory and research than is provided by PSY 13. Class will consist primarily of student-led discussion of recently published journal articles. Willingness to actively engage in the material and to participate in class are required for enrollment. Specific topics vary by semester.

PSYCHOLOGY 115 (Social Identity, Stigma and Coping)
People who are targeted by stereotypes and prejudice experience the world in unique ways. This course investigates the psychological consequences of stereotypes for victims and examines how targets of prejudice actively cope with being members of devalued social groups. We will discuss short- and long-term outcomes for people who possess devalued social identities, including the development of strategies to protect well-being in the face of discrimination. In addition, we will discuss situational and interpersonal factors that facilitate versus undermine victims' efforts to speak out about discrimination. This course will place an emphasis on empirical research and on teaching students how to interpret and critique research in social psychology.

PSYCHOLOGY 117 (Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
This seminar covers topics ranging from genetics to behavioral interventions for disorders, with a central focus on brain and cognitive development. Subtopics will include language acquisition, theory of mind, executive function, connectivity and lateralization, imitation, pretense, face processing, local vs. global processing, attention, and emotion regulation, among others.

PSYCHOLOGY 118 (Topics in Infancy)
This course is a seminar in which selected aspects of mental and social development during infancy are examined. Topics of study change from year to year; this spring the course will investigate current thinking and research about selected aspects of early perceptual, motor, and cognitive development. Are young infants confronted with a "blooming, buzzing confusion" (William James) as they enter and engage with the world of objects and events, or should we characterize them instead as "Competent Neonates" or "Scientists in the Crib" (recent book titles)? During the semester, we will look in depth at 3-4 selected topics, reading original research articles and theory papers on each and trying to weigh the evidence. For example, topics examined in the past have included speech perception; perception and knowledge of number; perception and knowledge of causality; early word learning; learning to reach, crawl, and walk; thinking ahead or "planning"; thinking back or "remembering"; perception and knowledge of different kinds of objects (e.g., animate versus inanimate), and so on. Class format and course work will include student presentations and discussions centered around reaction papers. The course is appropriate for juniors, seniors, and graduate students with some background in either developmental or cognitive psychology. Please note that Psy 118B is a separate, companion course to Psy 118A, not an alternate section; that is, students who have taken Psy 118A may also take and receive credit for 118B (and vice-versa).

PSYCHOLOGY 119 (Family Dynamics and Therapy)
This course examines theories and research relating to family dynamics and treatment. The perspective taken will be that of the family as a system, exploring the forces within the family that lead to, and inhibit, change and conflict. We will examine what makes some families get "stuck" and how various treatment approaches attempt to free them up, and how particular family styles are associated with particular difficulties (e.g., delinquency, anorexia, schizophrenia).

PSYCHOLOGY 120 (Project Study in Human Systems)
(Cross-listed as Engineering Psychology 120.) A project-oriented course led by faculty from engineering and psychology, with invited lecturers. Students will participate in team fashion in defining some human-centered problems and then developing, testing, and implementing solutions. Examples of such problems are safety acceptability of an auto and its driver considered as a complete man-machine system, practical development of human-factored products. Each team will be encouraged to seek practical problems of importance. This is a project oriented course that brings Engineering and Liberal Arts students, majoring in Engineering Psychology, together to work on a Human Factors project. Projects change each year but the process which runs from proposal to final presentation is the same. The students are mostly upper-class or graduate students from both sides of the Human Factors discipline.

PSYCHOLOGY 121 (Applying Cognition to Education)
This course is intended to cover topics in the cognitive psychology of human memory, conceptual learning, and comprehension with special focus on areas, theory, and research that have potential application to education. Thus, the course will provide selective coverage of theoretical and empirical work in cognitive psychology that provides potential to inform and improve educational practice. The applicability of these themes to education will be explicitly developed and evaluated through the primary research literature using educationally oriented experimental paradigms.

PSYCHOLOGY 122 (Cognitive Aging)
This seminar explores a range of topics within cognitive aging. Readings will include journal articles focusing on age-related changes in attention, inhibitory control across the lifespan, age-related changes in memory language, and age-related changes in source monitoring.

PSYCHOLOGY 123 (Psychopharmacology)
This course introduces the systematic study of the processes by which drugs alter behavior, primarily under experimental conditions. The main theme of the course will be to learn how drugs, in concert with environmental events, influence behavior via biochemical mechanisms. The objectives of this course are: (1) to provide background in experimental psychology and pharmacology necessary for an introduction to clinical and pre-clinical psychopharmacology, (2) to provide an overview of major areas of research in behavioral pharmacology in lectures, (sleep, appetite, sex, aggression, memory, sensation and hallucination, drug abuse, anxiety, depression and psychosis), (3) to analyze and critique selected classic and contemporary research articles in various areas of behavioral pharmacology. The course begins with introducing the neuropharmacological and behavioral foundations and then focuses on weekly topics, as listed above.

PSYCHOLOGY 126 (Origins of Cognition)
This course introduces students to research on the origins of cognitive behaviors in humans and other animals. Throughout the semester, we will address both basic cognitive building blocks (for example, identifying and reasoning about people and objects) as well as more complex cognitive processes (morality and consciousness). Readings will be drawn primarily from the current theories and latest research findings in cognitive development and animal cognition.

PSYCHOLOGY 127 (Behavioral Endocrinology)
The topic for this course is the influence of hormones on behavior and the effect of behavior on hormones. We will consider in detail the interrelationships of hormones and sex, aggression, hunger, thirst, learning, and mood. This will be done both at the level of behavioral analysis and at the level of neuroendocrine mechanisms. The course will be about half lecture and half seminar in format and in the seminar section topics suggested by the students will be included.

PSYCHOLOGY 128 (Advanced Seminar in Nutrition and Behavior)
(Cross-listed as Nutrition 128.) During the past decade, there has been an increasing awareness of the interaction between nutrition and behavior. To examine this interaction, two general themes will be pursued. First, we will investigate the effects of nutritional variables on brain functioning and behavior. Second, we will study the influence of psychological variables in determining nutritional status. Specific topics to be covered include: the effects of protein-caloric malnutrition on brain development and intellectual functioning; obesity and other eating disorders; food additives and behavior; the role of brain mechanisms in determining nutritional intake; and the importance of vitamins and minerals for behavioral functioning. The background of students in this course tends to be varied, which provides for very interesting and provocative classroom discussions.

PSYCHOLOGY 129 (Cognitive Neuroscience)
In this course we will discuss research and theories concerned with understanding the relationship between cognitive processes and the underlying brain systems responsible for these processes. These will include studies in the areas of: memory, attention, development and language.

PSYCHOLOGY 130 (Advanced Engineering Psychology)
This course is intended for students who have already had an introduction to engineering psychology and wish to learn more about selected topics in the area. The course is run in a seminar format, with students selecting topics of interest, doing library research and presenting in class those studies and issues they have found as their work progresses. In their presentation students will put together all they have found in a "state-of-the-art" summary for their particular topic.

PSYCHOLOGY 131 (Neuropsychology of Cognition)
Cognitive Neuropsychology aims to understand the nature of cognitive processes, mostly by using data from brain-damaged individuals to inform theories of normal cognition. The course focus on the methodology by which one may use patterns of impaired performance to determine the cognitive locus of an impairment. Topics will include the anatomy and vasculature of the brain, the philosophical logic of single patient vs. multiple patient case studies, as well as cognitive neuropsychological contributions to theories of spoken and written language processing, vision, attention, and somatosensation.

PSYCHOLOGY 133 (Psychology & Law)
This course will focus on applications of psychology to the study of the legal system. Drawing on theory and research from a range of areas within psychology (cognitive, developmental, clinical, and physiological, with a particular emphasis on social psychology), we will examine a variety of topics, including: criminal behavior; police interrogations and suspect confessions; lie detection; eyewitness performance; children as witnesses; persuasion in the courtroom and jury decision-making; the insanity defense. Class will consist of guest speakers, lectures, and demonstrations, but will rely heavily on student-led discussion of assigned readings.

PSYCHOLOGY 134 (Interpersonal Conflict and Negotiation)
This seminar will examine social psychological theories for conflict escalation and reduction of conflicts. The class will focus on research findings concerning social conflict, negotiation and mediation. Topics include: methodology for studying conflicts, individual differences and negotiation styles, the effect of physical components and culture on adversaries, strategic choices, social dilemmas, negotiators' power and effective third party intervention in interpersonal and group settings. Case studies, various classroom demonstration and exercises will be used.

PSYCHOLOGY 135 (Leadership & Group Dynamics)
This advanced social psychology seminar familiarizes students with models of leadership and leadership styles, and examines the influence of group processes on effective leadership. Group behaviors such as communication, use of power, performance, decision-making and conflicts are tested in light of changes in organizations and cross-cultural perspectives. Through class exercises, simulations, demonstrations and class presentations students will have the chance to gain perspective on their own leadership skills and improve their interactions in groups.

PSYCHOLOGY 136 (Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination)
History is replete with examples of differential beliefs about and treatment of others based on group membership. This is an advanced course in social psychology where we will examine a social psychological perspective on stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. In particular, this course emphasizes how a social cognition perspective in social psychology has informed our understanding of the formation, maintenance, and expression of stereotypes. In addition, we'll examine the implications that stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination have for stigmatized individuals' thoughts, behavior, and outcomes. The goal of the course is to develop students' understanding of how stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination operate in human relations.

PSYCHOLOGY 138 (Family Interaction)
The focus of the course is on the family and the patterns of interaction between/among family members as units of analysis. Students are introduced to the relevant theories of family interaction and to methodologies for studying families. An additional focus is on the family as an ever changing phenomenon within the larger culture with attention given to the ways in which families both facilitate and accommodate to developmental changes, divorce and family reorganization, substance abuse and other relevant issues. The question of what differentiates healthy family functioning from dysfunction is addressed at the level of theory, research and clinical practice. In addition to designing their own research, students work in groups to conduct live family interviews.

PSYCHOLOGY 139 (Social Cognition)
Psychologists interested in social cognition seek to examine the cognitive processes underlying human thought and interaction. This is an advanced course in social psychology where we will focus on a limited number of topics compared to that typically covered in an introductory social psychology course. The goal of the course is to help you to become more fluent in the issues in social cognition research.

PSYCHOLOGY 140 (Mathematical Psychology)
Mathematical psychology deals with the use of mathematical methods as a means to understand basic psychological processes. Models for learning, memory, perception, classification, and decision making are just a few examples of mathematical psychology. The course is mainly a seminar, but there will be some lecture to establish the foundations. Students will be encouraged to explore mathematical psychology within the topic of their choice.

PSYCHOLOGY 142 (Seminar in Affective Neuroscience)
Advanced seminar on the systems-level brain bases of emotion. Topics usually include basic theories of emotion, positive and negative affect, hemispheric asymmetries, emotional memory, emotion regulation, and selected topics in common forms of psychopathology such as depression and anxiety.

PSYCHOLOGY 143 (Motivation and Emotion)
Theory and research on motivation and emotion, focusing on empirical studies of the major human motive systems (e.g., achievement, power, affiliation, and avoidance) and the effects of emotion on thought and behavior. Topics include: methods for measuring motives and affect, the development of motives from natural incentives, and the relationship between motivation and emotion.

PSYCHOLOGY 144 (Memory and Retention)
This seminar course explores a wide range of topics associated with memory functioning. Topics include: basic memory dynamics, memory organization, imagery, pattern recognition, effects of encoding, memory development, storage and retrieval components of forgetting, amnesias ( infantile, post-hypnotic, retrograde, anterograde), memory suppression, false-memory syndrome, Alzheimer's dementia, and other effects of brain injury on memory.

PSYCHOLOGY 145 (Mental Representation)
This seminar-based course will explore how we mentally represent information and how we use this information. Topics will include mental representation formats, acquiring and updating mental representations, internal and external influences on mental representations, distortions and errors in representations, how mental representations are used across contexts, and atypical mental representations (e.g. synesthesia, savants).

PSYCHOLOGY 146 (Comparative Cognition and Behavior)
An advanced course examining the theory and techniques in the comparative analysis of psychological processes in different species. The contributions of evolution and ecology will be examined in the production of similarities and differences in the behavior and cognition of animals.

PSYCHOLOGY 147 (Multitasking)
An advanced treatment of human attention with an emphasis on multitasking. Topics include how multitasking has been conceptualized, how it has been measured, what it looks like outside the lab in more realistic settings, how individuals vary in their ability to multitask, and whether or not multitasking performance can be optimized.

PSYCHOLOGY 149 (Psychology of Language)
Language is paramount among the capacities that characterize humans. We hold language as a marker of our humanity and by understanding language, we assume that we will understand something important about ourselves. In this course we will ask, and try to answer questions such as the following: Is our capacity for language a biological endowment unique to the human species? How do we produce and understand sentences? What might cause us to fail at either task? What is meaning, and how does language express it? How do social situations change our language use?

PSYCHOLOGY 150 (Semantics)
(Cross-listed as Phil 111 and Ling 113.) The structure of meaning as it is encoded in human language and processed by the human brain. Mentalistic theories of sense and reference; word meanings; combining word meanings into phrasal meanings; aspects of meaning not conveyed by words.

PSYCHOLOGY 151 (Syntactic Theory)
Syntactic theory, the study of grammatical structure, is the core subcomponent of contemporary linguistics. Topics of the course include: Syntactic categories, phase structure, long-distance dependencies, the balance between grammar and lexicon and between syntax and semantics, syntactic universals, and the innate predispositions required for children to learn the syntactic structure of their native languages. Multiple theoretical approaches will be compared.

PSYCHOLOGY 152 (The Psychology of Bilingualism)
In most of the world knowledge and use of more than one language in daily life is the norm. Even in the U.S. where English is the dominant language, there is a growing awareness that knowledge of a second language is essential to our competitiveness in an increasingly interactive world and likely has certain cognitive benefits including improved executive functioning and protection against cognitive aging. This seminar explores bilingualism from the perspective of psychology. Among the topics discussed are: the bilingual brain, developmental bilingualism, second language acquisition, bilingual memory, social and cognitive implications of bilingualism, and the interaction of a bilingual's languages at the cognitive level.

PSYCHOLOGY 153 (Biological Foundations of Language)
(Cross-listed as Ling 153 and Phil 110). Is the human ability to learn and use language a specialized cognitive capacity encoded in the genome, or is it just a consequence of having a large brain? Addresses the evidence bearing on this question, based on the character of language, language learning, and language disability. The degree to which the language faculty draws on other cognitive capacities, the relation of language to forms of animal communication, and hypotheses about the evolution of the language faculty.

PSYCHOLOGY 154 (Psychosis)
A seminar course focusing on the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder and psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder). Examination of psychotic phenomena and disorders from multiple theoretical perspectives: clinical diagnosis, etiology and pathogenesis, genetics, neurochemistry, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience, including neuroimaging.

PSYCHOLOGY 155 (Phonological Theory)
(Cross-listed as Ling 154). An introduction to phonological analysis -- the study of the sound patterns of the world's languages. Topics will include the structure of phonological representations (features, syllables, metrical structure), cross-linguistic universals, and how abstract phonological competence is related to articulatory and perceptual processes. Analysis of primary linguistic data and introduction to current debates in phonological theory.

PSYCHOLOGY 159 (Emotion, Stress, and Health)
Survey of the psychological and biological underpinnings of emotion and stress. Topics usually include theories of emotion and stress; the influence of culture, cognition, and social relationships; the role of the endocrine, immune, peripheral and central nervous systems; stress-related disease and stress management.

PSYCHOLOGY 181, 182 (Senior Capstone in Clinical Psychology)
This is a year-long (5 semester hour credits per semester) weekly senior capstone seminar for the Clinical Psychology Majors. It runs alongside a volunteer fieldwork placement, clinical research project or other type of senior project (minimum 12-16 hours per week). Students' clinical and research experiences and projects are discussed and analyzed: multiple aspects of diagnosis and clinical management and clinical research are covered. By the end of this two-semester course, students will gain important insights into clinical work and research in a range of mental health/human service settings. Intended for students interested in medical school, clinical psychology graduate programs, clinical research and all other careers involving work within the field of mental health and related disciplines. Senior clinical majors only.

PSYCHOLOGY 191 (Independent Research: Projects in Psychology) – Fall
Fall semester listing for advanced undergraduates who wish to participate in all phases of a research project. The student's contribution to the research should be at a higher level than for PSY 91/92, demonstrating increased independence and autonomy, with the potential for inclusion as a co-author of a conference presentation or publication. A final paper or presentation is required. Students interested in PSY 191 should speak with potential faculty supervisors far in advance of course registration period. Pre-requisites: Completion of one semester of research (usually PSY 91/92) and consent of the supervising faculty member.

PSYCHOLOGY 192 (Independent Research: Projects in Psychology) – Spring
Spring semester listing for advanced undergraduates who wish to participate in all phases of a research project. The student's contribution to the research should be at a higher level than for PSY 91/92, demonstrating increased independence and autonomy, with the potential for inclusion as a co-author of a conference presentation or publication. A final paper or presentation is required. Students interested in PSY 192 should speak with potential faculty supervisors far in advance of course registration period. Pre-requisites: Completion of one semester of research (usually PSY 91/92) and consent of the supervising faculty member.

PSYCHOLOGY 195 (Senior Seminar in Cognitive & Brain Sciences)
Year-long weekly research meeting for seniors majoring or minoring in Cognitive and Brain Science. Provides a forum for discussion of current work in the field, including the work of active researchers who present their work at Tufts, and the work of CBS seniors who are doing senior research projects.

PSYCHOLOGY 196 (Seminar in Psychology)
Contemporary problems in selected areas of psychology. Details for current seminars provided below.

PSYCHOLOGY 196-01 (Current Research in Behavioral Neuroscience)
This course aims to introduce, analyze and critique current research articles in behavioral neuroscience. The topics of these articles are selected according to the ongoing research interests of the graduate and undergraduate participants. It is expected that each member of the class presents the scientific background, hypothesis, research methods and design, the key results and their interpretation of a recently published major article in such journals as Science, Nature, Cell, Journal of Neuroscience, Neuropsychopharmacology, and Biological Psychiatry. In addition, each member contributes data flashes to each presentation. The preparation of a scholarly review article will conclude the term. This course has been approved to count as an elective toward the Biopsych major for F19. Requires: PSY 25, PSY 103 or PSY 129.

PSYCHOLOGY 196-02 (Biological Bases of Violence)
This course explores biological explanations for violent outbursts that range from conserved adaptive styles of fighting to maladaptive, excessive acts of aggression. The neurobiological basis of behavior as a field started with examining aggressive endpoints across a variety of mammalian species, which allowed for early empirical assessments of "emotional regulation" in brain. As such, various types of aggression are now well-characterized, and each appears with distinct molecular and cellular actions as well as the incorporation of numerous circuits across the brain. We will focus heavily on research methods and results in behavioral neuroscience that elucidate the neural antecedents of fighting. Here you will discuss and present on published research articles that reveal the biological mechanisms of aggressive and violent behaviors. This course has been approved to count as an elective toward the Biopsych major for F19. Requires: PSY 103, or Bio 014.

PSYCHOLOGY 199 (Senior Honors Thesis)
If you plan to do an honor's thesis, you must sign up for PSYCHOLOGY 199 both Fall and Spring of your senior year. Discuss this with a faculty sponsor.

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