Mandating Food Insecurity:
The Global Impacts of Rising Biofuel Mandates and Targets
Timothy A. Wise and Emily Cole
GDAE Working Paper No. 15-01
Download the Working Paper
Expanding demand for biofuels, fed significantly by government policies mandating rising levels of consumption in transportation fuel, has been strongly implicated in food price increases and food price volatility most recently seen in 2008 and 2011-2012. First-generation biofuels, made from agricultural crops, divert food directly to fuel markets and divert land, water and other food-producing resources from their current or potential uses for production of feed for animals and food for human consumption.
A key policy driver of biofuel consumption is government mandates to increase or maintain rates or levels of biofuel blends in transportation fuel, the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard and the E.U. Renewable Energy Directive being the most prominent cases. Mandates prop up demand for biofuels, particularly at times when oil prices are relatively low. In a GDAE Working Paper, Timothy A. Wise and Emily Cole assess the spread of such mandates and targets, finding that at least 64 countries now have such policies. A related policy report from Action Aid USA calls for immediate policy reform.
The authors estimate the consumption increases implied by full implementation of such mandates in the seven countries/regions with the highest biofuel consumption, suggesting a 43% increase in first-generation biofuel consumption in 2025 over current levels. A 43% increase over current levels would likely require 13-17 million hectares more land than we are currently already devoting to biofuel production and approximately 145 billion more liters of water. Some international agencies anticipate even higher levels of biofuel consumption.
The authors assess the likelihood of implementation in key countries and regions, which suggests that with reform, particularly in OECD countries, consumption growth could be slowed. The European Union is considering reforms that would reduce further growth in demand for first-generation biofuels by 50%. The United States would do well to consider similar reforms that recognize the food-versus-fuel conflict.
The United States is expected to remain by far the largest global consumer of first-generation biofuels in 2025, contribute the most to global consumption, and do so using the feedstock – corn – that provides the fewest environmental benefits and most directly competes with food and feed markets. Even a modest reform, such as that proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2013 to scale back the Renewable Fuel Standard, would reduce projected consumption growth in 2022 by one-third. More ambitious proposals in Congress to eliminate consumption mandates for first-generation biofuels go even further.
Mandates must be scaled back, and strict sustainability criteria must be applied to mandates for both first and second-generation biofuels. Otherwise, governments are mandating not just biofuel consumption but hunger and unsustainable resource use.
Download the Working Paper. Download the Executive Summary.
Download the related ActionAid Report, “Mandating Hunger”
Read more of GDAE’s work on the Global Food Crisis and Global Biofuel Policies.
Read Timothy A. Wise’s work on A Rights-Based Approach to the Food Crisis
Read more on GDAE’s Globalization and Sustainable Development Program
The Global Development and Environment Institute’s Globalization and Sustainable Development Program examines the economic, social and environmental impacts of economic integration in developing countries, with a particular emphasis on the WTO and NAFTA's lessons for trade and development policy. The goal of the program is to identify policies and international agreements that foster sustainable development.