Researchers and Staff
Co-Directors: Neva R. Goodwin,
William R. Moomaw
Director, Theory and Education Program: Jonathan M. Harris
Researchers: Brian Roach, Pratistha Joshi Rajkarnikar
Staff: Monica Barros, Erin Coutts, Angela Trowbridge, Mitchell Stallman
Senior Research Fellows:
Frank Ackerman, Julie A. Nelson, Kenneth Shadlen, Mariano Torras, Timothy A. Wise, Lyuba Zarsky
Jeffrey Ashe, Jeronim Capaldo, Anne Marie Codur, Rachel Massey, Shaun Paul, Roberto Porzecanski, June Sekera
Visiting Research Fellows:
Agustín García García, Pierre Kohler, Yifei Zhang
Jamie Fanous, Stefan Koester, Elizabeth Minchew, Daphne Warlamis
the GDAE Speakers List summarizing researcher expertise
Neva R. Goodwin, Co-Director
Neva Goodwin is active in a variety of attempts to systematize and institutionalize an economic theory – “contextual economics” – that will have more relevance to contemporary real world concerns than does the dominant economic paradigm. She has edited more than a dozen books, and is the lead author of three introductory textbooks: Microeconomics in Context, Macroeconomics in Context, and Principles of Economics in Context. A Transitional Economies Edition was translated into Russian and Vietnamese, and a European edition of the macro text is being prepared.
Over the past decade Dr. Goodwin led the creation of a “social science library” called Frontier Thinking in Sustainable Development and Human Well-Being which contains nearly 10,000 full bibliographic references, representing seven social sciences, and including full text PDFs for a third of the referenced articles and book chapters. This is being distributed widely in 100 developing and transitional countries, with special efforts to reach institutions with poor or no Internet access. The goal is that this will also be available on line through Tufts in early 2017.
Dr. Goodwin seeks ways to translate an understanding of the economy in its full social and ecological contexts into action and policy. She also seeks a deeper theoretic understanding from exposure to on-the-ground experiments in alternative socio-economic institutional design, and is involved with efforts to motivate business to recognize social and ecological health as significant, long-term corporate goals.
Some of Dr. Goodwin’s papers that receive continuing attention include:
Core Support for the New Economy [Draft working paper] June 2016
Prices and Work in The New Economy, April 2014
Five Kinds of Capital: Useful Concepts for Sustainable Development, September 2003
Dr. Goodwin received a MPA from Harvard Kennedy School ('82) and a Ph.D. in Economics from Boston University ('87). For more about Dr. Goodwin, see her wikipedia entry and her ResearchGate profile, where several of her articles and working papers are also available.
C.V. Links to Selected Publications
William R. Moomaw, Co-Director
William R. Moomaw is Emeritus Professor of International Environmental Policy and Founding Director of the Center for International Environment and Resource Policy at The Fletcher School, Tufts University. He is also Co-Director of the Global Development and Environment Institute at Tufts. He received his BA degree in chemistry from Williams College and PhD in physical chemistry from MIT. Following a 26-year career in chemistry and environmental studies at Williams College, where he directed the Center for Environmental Studies, he began working on science diplomacy and climate change.
His research and teaching address climate change and low-carbon renewable energy and related global issues including water, forests, agriculture, nitrogen pollution and oceans. He has also developed the field of Sustainable Development Diplomacy as a means of implementing sustainable development and the Sustainable Development Goals. His current research examines the full range of fossil fuel consequences, the role of Restorative Development in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by forests, wetlands, grasslands and agricultural soils, and correctly accounting for emissions from bioenergy.
See Dr. Moomaw's current research | Extended Bio | Fletcher School Faculty page
M. Harris, Director, Theory and Education Program
Jonathan M. Harris holds a B.A. from Harvard University and a Ph.D. from Boston University. Dr. Harris is President of the United States Society for Ecological Economics. He is co-author of Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: A Contemporary Approach (3rd ed., M.E. Sharpe, 2013) and of Macroeconomics in Context, Principles of Economics in Context, and Microeconomics in Context (M.E., Sharpe, 2014). He is co-editor of Twenty-First Century Macroeconomics: Responding to the Climate Challenge (Edward Elgar, 2009), New Thinking in Macroeconomics: Social and Institutional Perspectives (Edward Elgar, 2003), and of the Frontier Issues in Economic Thought volumes A Survey of Sustainable Development, A Survey of Ecological Economics, and Human Well-Being and Economic Goals. He is also editor of Rethinking Sustainability: Power, Knowledge, and Institutions; author of World Agriculture and the Environment; and co-author of environmental teaching modules in microeconomics and macroeconomics. He has served as Adjunct Associate Professor of International Economics at Tufts University's Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, and as consultant and lecturer at the Brown University Watson Institute International Scholars of the Environment Program and the University of the Middle East.
Roach, Senior Research Associate
Roach received a Ph.D. in environmental policy analysis
from the University of California, Davis in 1995 and
an M.S. in agricultural economics from The Pennsylvania
State University in 1990. From 1997-2001, he worked
at the University of Maine, Orono as a researcher and
teacher. His research background has focused on non-market
valuation of natural resources, including drinking water
quality, water-based recreation, wildlife, and subsistence
activities. As a teacher, he has taught courses in economics
and natural resources. He also developed a course on
the history, theory, and social implications of mass
consumerism. Since coming to GDAE in the summer of 2001,
he has co-authored Environmental and Natural
Resource Economics: A Contemporary Approach and Microeconomics in Context, including writing
an Instructors Manual for both. He is currently working
on several research topics including the role of large
corporations in a global economy, the distributional
implications of tax policy in the U.S., and economic
Pratistha Joshi Rajkarnikar, Postdoctoral Scholar
Pratistha Joshi Rajkarnikar received her B.A. from Mount Holyoke College in 2009 and completed her Ph.D. in Economics from University of Massachusetts Amherst in 2017. Her research covers broad range of topics on household power relations, gendered division of labor, women’s empowerment, economic development and the impacts of globalization on developing economies. Her work informs policies on labor migration, sustainable development, and gender equality. She has taught economics in visiting positions at Trinity College and University of Massachusetts Boston. As a Postdoc Scholar at GDAE, she is co-authoring the texts Macroeconomics in Context and Microeconomics in Context.
Monica Barros, Communications Assistant
Monica joined GDAE in September 2016. She is great.
Erin Coutts, Communications Specialist
Erin joined GDAE in March 2012. As Communications Specialist, she manages all promotion for the Institute, including email outreach, social media, publication design and layout, event planning, and our website. Previously, she worked with two non-profit youth organizations in Honduras. She has a B.A. in International Studies from American University and is currently pursuing a M.A. in Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning at Tufts University.
Angela Trowbridge, Program Coordinator
Angela graduated from Mount Holyoke College with a B.A. in Politics and a minor in Film Studies. She spent a semester abroad in Copenhagen, Denmark to study European & Danish Politics and Society. Angela chose internships at nonprofit organizations focusing on education reform: Education Pioneers and Jumpstart. After graduating, Angela launched her career in nonprofits as Government Relations Coordinator at Jumpstart, where she worked to advocate for high-quality early childhood education, and increased funding for national and community service programs. Before joining GDAE, Angela served as manager of Operations & Administration at America Achieves.
Mitch Stallman, Research Coordinator
Mitch is currently finishing his last semester of his B.A. in Economics and International Relations at Tufts University. He has been with GDAE since January 2013, when he began as a student research assistant with the Theory and Education program. In that time, he worked closely with the logistics and organization of the Social Science Library (SSL) project and provided research assistance for three of GDAE’s texts: Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: A Contemporary Approach, Macroeconomics in Context, and Microeconomics in Context. As a GDAE staff member, he is overseeing the SSL project through its final stages.
Senior Research Fellows
Liz Stanton, Senior Research Fellow
Liz Stanton is an independent consultant who works with GDAE. Dr. Stanton is in the process of founding the Applied Economics Clinic at GDAE. The Applied Economics Clinic is a non-profit that provides expert testimony, analysis, modeling, policy briefs, and reports to public interest groups on the topics of environment, energy, consumer protection, equity, and political economy, as well as training to the next generation of expert analysts in these fields. She has more than 15 years of professional experience as an environmental economist, and has authored more than 80 reports, policy studies, white papers, journal articles, and book chapters on topics related to energy, the economy, and the environment. Liz has co-authored three books on environmental and energy economics: Climate and Global Equity (2014), Climate Economics: The State of the Art (2013) and Environment for the People (2005). In her previous position as a principal economist at Synapse Energy Economics, Dr. Stanton led studies examining environmental regulation, cost-benefit analyses, and the economics of energy efficiency and renewable energy. Her recent work includes extensive analysis of the EPAís proposed Clean Power Plan. Prior to joining Synapse, Dr. Stanton was a senior economist with the Stockholm Environment Instituteís (SEIís) Climate Economics Group, where she was responsible for leading the organizationís work on the Consumption-Based Emissions Inventory (CBEI) model and on water issues and climate change in the western U.S. While at SEI, Dr. Stanton led domestic and international studies commissioned by the UN Development Programme, Friends of the Earth-U.K., and Environmental Defense. She earned her Ph.D. in economics at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst, and has taught economics at Tufts University, the University of Massachusetts-Amherst, and the College of New Rochelle, among others.
Ackerman, Senior Research Fellow
Frank Ackerman is an economist who has written extensively about the economics of climate change and other environmental problems. He is now a senior economist at Synapse Energy Economics, a consulting firm in Cambridge, MA. He has taught economics and environmental policy at MIT, Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts. He worked at GDAE from 1995 through 2007, and for the Stockholm Environment Institute from 2007 to 2012. He remains a senior research fellow at GDAE. For a biographical description and resume, please see his Synapse Energy Economics staff page. Most of his publications, and additional information on his work, can be found on his personal website.
A. Nelson, Senior Research Fellow
Julie A. Nelson is a Senior Research Fellow at GDAE and a Professor of Economics and Department Chair at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. She received her Ph.D. degree in Economics from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1986, and has held positions at the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the University of California-Davis, Brandeis University, Harvard University, and Bates College. She is author of Economics for Humans (University of Chicago Press), Feminism, Objectivity, and Economics (Routledge), coeditor of Beyond Economic Man: Feminist Theory and Economics and Feminist Economics Today (both University of Chicago Press), and author of numerous scholarly articles. At GDAE she has co-authored Microeconomics in Context, Macroeconomics in Context, and other curriculum materials. See the GDAE feature on Dr. Nelson and her work.
UMass Boston Faculty Web Page
Kenneth Shadlen, Senior Research Fellow
Kenneth C. Shadlen is a Senior Research Fellow with GDAE's Globalization and Sustainable Development Program, and a Reader in Development Studies at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Shadlen received his PhD. in Political Science from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1997. He is a Managing Editor of the Journal of Development Studies and the co-editor of The Political Economy of Hemispheric Integration: Responding to Globalization in the Americas (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008). His current research addresses the politics of intellectual property (IP), and the politics of North-South economic integration. He also works on the political economy of bilateral and regional trade agreements and the World Trade Organisation. His work analyzes the implications of the new global regime for IP on both industrialization and technological transformation and also public health, and the various ways that the new global norms and rules for IP are transmitted to the national level and affect national practices. The working title of his new book is Knowledge Gaps, Knowledge Traps?: The New Politics of Patents in Development.
LSE Web Page
Mariano Torras, Senior Research Fellow
Mariano Torras holds a Ph.D. and MA in economics from the University of Massachusetts, and a MA in international political economy and development from Fordham University. Since 1999, he has been a professor of economics at Adelphi University. He specializes in ecological economics and development economics, and his research publications have been in the areas of well-being assessment, environmental and natural resource accounting, dematerialization trends, and links between power inequality and health outcomes (as well as other socioeconomic variables). His articles have appeared in Ecological Economics, World Development, Journal of Happiness Studies, Social Science Quarterly, Development and Change, International Review of Applied Economics, and other journals. His current research focuses on alternative (non-Western) approaches to development and human progress, as well as the problem of subjectivity and measurement in economics. In addition to introductory micro and macro economics, he regularly teaches environmental economics, development economics, econometrics, and the senior capstone seminar. He is co-founder, trustee, and treasurer of the Brooklyn Free School, an independent private school where students participate in running the school and tailor their own unique curriculum to their particular interests and passions.
Adelphi University Faculty Web Page
A. Wise, Senior Research Fellow
Timothy A. Wise is a Senior Research Fellow with GDAE's Globalization and Sustainable Development Program, which he directed from 2000-2016. He now directs the Land and Food Rights Program at Small Planet Institute and is also a Senior Research Fellow at the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts.
With a background as an economic journalist and an international development practitioner, Wise’s research and writing have focused on the global food crisis, including U.S. farm policies, trade and agricultural development, the lessons from NAFTA, agricultural biodiversity, biofuels and food prices, and Mexicoís maize economy. With a prestigious fellowship from the Open Society Foundations, Wise conducted research for a book tentatively titled Feeding Illusions: Agribusiness, Family Farmers, and the Future of Food.
Wise previously was Executive Director of Grassroots International and a writer and editor at Dollars & Sense magazine, Amherst. He is the co-author of Confronting Globalization: Economic Integration and Popular Resistance in Mexico, The Promise and the Perils of Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Lessons from Latin America, and A Survey of Sustainable Development: Social and Economic Dimensions.
Follow Wise on Twitter
Lyuba Zarsky, Senior Research Fellow
Lyuba Zarsky is Senior Research Fellow with GDAE's Globalization and Sustainable Development Program and co-author with Kevin Gallagher of Enclave Economy: Foreign Investment and Sustainable Development in Mexico's Silicon Valley (MIT Press, 2007). She is Associate Professor at the Graduate School for International Policy Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies in Monterey, California and was formerly the co-director of a the Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability in Berkeley, California. She has written widely on global trade and investment, corporate accountability, and sustainable development including "Searching for Gold in the Highlands of Guatemala: Economic Benefits and Environmental Risks of the Marlin Mine" (GDAE, 2011), International Investment for Sustainable Development: Balancing Rights and Rewards (Earthscan Press, 2005); Human Rights and the Environment: Conflicts and Norms in a Globalizing World (Earthscan Press, 2004); and Beyond Good Deeds: Case Studies and A New Policy Agenda for Corporate Accountability (Natural Heritage Institute, 2002). She holds a Masters Degree in Economics from the New School for Social Research and a PhD in Economics from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Monterey Institute of International Studies Faculty Web Page
Jeffrey Ashe, Research Fellow
Based on research he carried out in Nepal, India, and Zimbabwe, Jeff Ashe designed and led the Saving for Change Initiative at Oxfam America that in seven years grew to 600,000 members, most all of them women, in Mali, Senegal, Cambodia, El Salvador and Guatemala. He has played a leadership role in building support and securing funding for this radically decentralized approach to financial inclusion based as it is on training autonomous saving and lending groups that mobilize their own savings rather than building financial institutions. He left Oxfam in March 2013 to continue research in this field and published In Their Own Hands: How Savings Groups Are Revolutionizing Development in 2014. Read his Next Billion blog post for more information on this work.
Jeff Ashe previously founded and led Working Capital, which was for a time the largest microfinance institution in the US, and has consulted on microfinance projects in over 30 countries. While at Acción International in the '70s and '80s, he directed the first worldwide study of microfinance, and thus introduced group lending to Acción in 1982. As a Peace Corps Volunteer, he developed the Campesino Leadership Training program in agrarian reform areas. He teaches microfinance at Columbia and Brandeis and holds a BA in political science from UC Berkley and an MA in sociology from Boston University.
Jeronim Capaldo, Research Fellow
Jeronim Capaldo is a Research Fellow with GDAE's Globalization and Sustainable Development Program. Prior to joining GDAE he was a member of the modeling and forecasting team at the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, where he was responsible for Latin America and the Caribbean and for the analysis of global employment. Jeronim earned a Laurea in economics from the University of Rome “La Sapienza” and a PhD in economics at the New School for Social Research. His current research focuses on international policy coordination in global macroeconomic models.
Contact Jeronim Capaldo at Jeronim.Capaldo@tufts.edu
Anne Marie Codur, Research Fellow
Anne Marie Codur is a Franco-American scholar, educator, activist
and artist, with a multicultural background. She obtained her Ph.D. in Economics from Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris and was a Post-Doctoral fellow at Harvard University and an associated researcher at GDAE, where she co-wrote several educational modules in ecological economics with Jonathan Harris. While at Harvard, she co-founded the University of the Middle East Project (UME). Dr. Codur was successively Academic Director and Executive Director of UME, until 2008. Since 2009, she has been a Senior Advisor of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict, lecturing in the US, Europe, and the Middle East, in series of workshops dedicated to the dissemination of the methods and strategies of nonviolent action. She recently co-founded and is Academic Director of Newscoop, an online venture providing high school students from around the world with the tools of sound journalism. In 2011, she resumed her affiliation with GDAE as a research associate, taking part in the editing of educational modules and chapters of the ecological economics textbook, as well as in their translation in French, to reach a broad audience of French speaking scholars and students around the world.
Massey, Research Fellow
Massey is a Research Fellow with GDAE's program in Economics
for Health and the Senior Associate Director and Policy Program Manager at the Toxics Use Reduction Institute at UMass Lowell. She holds a Master's degree
in Public Affairs from Princeton University's Woodrow
Wilson School and a Master's degree in Environmental
Change and Management from Oxford University. She has
worked as a researcher, writer, and editor for environmental
organizations including Environmental Research Foundation,
Pesticide Action Network, and the Institute for Science
and Interdisciplinary Studies at Hampshire College.
She has published articles on a variety of health and
environment topics, ranging from health and developmental
effects of toxic exposures through genetic engineering
in agriculture. Her article on health and environmental
implications of US support for the "war on drugs"
in Colombia won a 2003 Project Censored award for top
stories underreported in the mainstream media.
TURI Staff Website
Shaun Paul, Research Fellow
Shaun Paul is a Research Fellow with GDAE's Globalization and Sustainable Development Program and is currently working on a project titled Assessing Impact of Private Investment: A Focus on Biocultural Diversity. Shaun is the Managing Director and Founding Partner of Reinventure Capital, established in partnership with the private equity firm Good Capital. Designated as a Next Generation Leadership Fellow by the Rockefeller Foundation, Shaun has worked internationally for 25 years with policymakers, indigenous leaders, business leaders, private foundations and environmentalists to forge new models building resilient communities and accelerating an inclusive, restorative economy. This includes his current role as Program Committee Board Chair for International Funders for Indigenous People and nominator for the Goldman Environmental Prize. His prior roles include Founder and Executive Director of the EcoLogic Development Fund, Founder and Co-President of Pico Bonito Forests LLC, Steering Committee member for White Water to Blue Water, and a founding board member for Root Capital and ArtCorps. He holds a Masters in Economics from the University of Michigan and a B.A. in International Relations from the School of International Service at American University.
June Sekera, Research Fellow
June Sekera is a public policy practitioner and researcher. At GDAE, her work is focused on the public economy and the role of government. She is founder and organizer of GDAE’s Public Economy Project. Her working paper, Economics and the Near-Death Experience of Democratic Governance, was published in May 2015. Current initiatives include: “What is the Public Economy? Defining its Nature, Scope and Size” and the “Essential Economy” Project, which will look at how the public economy and the core economy represent the fundamental economic systems without which the market could not operate. Other published articles and papers have focused on public goods and public, non-market production. June has held leadership and management positions at federal, state and local levels of government. As the former Vice President for Performance Management at the Commonwealth Corporation in Massachusetts, she led the agency in establishing and managing a performance planning and goals measurement system. She has been a consultant to national, state and local government and non-profit organizations on policy development, performance accountability, performance management systems, program evaluation, program development and strategic planning. She holds a Master's degree in Public Administration from Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. Her 1983 publication, States and Communities: The Challenge for Economic Action, was used in graduate courses at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government and at MIT’s Department of Urban Studies and Planning.
Visitng Research Fellows
Agustín García García, Visiting Research Fellow
Agustín García García is a professor of Economics at the University of Extremadura, Spain, having received a PHD from the university in 1996. He obtained a Graduate Degree in Economic Sciences in 1989 from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain. García’s publications include an article in vol. 31, n°7 of Applied Economics, “Consumptions of Spanish Households: Evidence of Cohort Data.” Additionally, co-authored three articles with Julian Ramajo Hernandez: “Budget deficit and interest rates: empirical evidence for Spain,” “Fiscal Policy and Private Consumption Behaviour: The Spanish Case,” and “Explaining aggregate private saving behaviour: new evidence from a panel of OCDE countries,” all of which were published in Applied Economics. García authored a GDAE working paper on the shift towards a more sustainable electricity sector in Portugal and Spain. He is also collaborating with GDAE researchers on the production and translation of various teaching materials in Spanish.
Pierre Kohler, Visiting Research Fellow
Pierre Kohler is a Visiting Research Fellow with GDAE's Globalization and Sustainable Development Program. Prior to joining GDAE he worked for seven years as an economist for the United Nations in Geneva and New York on macroeconomic modeling as well as trade and development policy analysis, with a particular emphasis on inequality and redistributive challenges. Pierre studied international relations before obtaining a PhD in international economics from the Geneva Graduate Institute. His current research focuses on trade and investment agreements, financialization and inequality.
Contact Pierre Kohler at email@example.com
Yifei Zhang, Visiting Research Fellow
Professor Yifei Zhang is the director of the Research Center of Climate Change and Green Economy at the International Business School of Shanghai University of International Business and Economics. She is also a committee member of the Chinese Society of Eco Economics and part-time professor at the Zhejiang Ecological Civilization research center. She received her Ph.D. from Fudan University with a focus on population, natural resources, and environmental economics, and completed a master’s degree in hydrology and water resource management at Sichuan University. She specializes in Ecological Service Valuation by CVM, pollution permit trading systems, and Environmental Justice. She was a visiting scholar at Auburn University in 2011 and the Gund Institute, University of Vermont in 2007. Her monograph “Ecological Service Valuation of Urban River Restoration Employing CVM” was published in 2014 by Science Press in Bejing, China. She is an anonymous reviewer of academic journals in USA and China.
Contact Yifei Zhang at Yifei.firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Jamie Fanous, Research Assistant
Jamie Fanous is a dual-degree candidate at Tufts’ Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy in Agriculture, Food, & the Environment (M.S.), and at the Tufts’ School of Arts & Sciences in in Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning (M.A).
At GDAE, Jamie works with Professor Moomaw studying carbon emissions produced from bioenergy.
Jamie is also a research fellow with the Tufts Institute of the Environment (TIE) studying the effectiveness of biochar on in Rwandan agriculture. She conducts research through Water: Systems, Science & Society (WSSS) studying the environmental constrains for increased fruit and vegetable production
Stefan Koester, Research Assistant
Stefan is working with Professor Moomaw, studying the impacts of biomass energy production on international emissions accounting. He is a dual-masters candidate at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, where he focuses on international resource policy and development economics, and the Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning program. He graduated from the College of Charleston in South Carolina with a dual degree in philosophy and economics. He grew up in the Washington, D.C. area.
Elizabeth Minchew, Research Assistant
Elizabeth Minchew is a first year MALD at the Fletcher School studying development economics and international environment and resource policy. Before returning to school, she worked with the World Bank Group and CGIAR on projects related to smallholder agriculture, climate change, and sustainable development. At GDAE, Elizabeth works with Professor Moomaw studying carbon emissions produced from bioenergy.
Daphne Warlamis, Research Assistant
Before joining Tuft’s MPP program Daphne was an instructor in political science at the University of Alaska, Anchorage, where she also conducted research on the Arctic. From 2014-2016 she worked as a program manager for the US Air Force on Mildenhall AFB, UK. From 2011- 2014 Daphne served as a political and economic analyst at the US Embassy in Bern, Switzerland. Prior she held various research appointments e.g. at the Austrian Institute for International Affairs, at the Center for Security Studies, ETH Zurich, and at the Belfer Center at Harvard University. Her areas of expertise/interest include environmental studies, climate and resource policy, transatlantic diplomacy and security studies.
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