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Tufts University
Department of Education
Paige Hall
Medford, MA 02155

Analúcia D. Schliemann

Research Professor of Education

  • Ph.D. in Developmental Psychology, University of London (University College), UK.
  • License and Maîtrise in Psychology, University of Paris, France.
  • B.A. and License in Education, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.

Analúcia D. Schliemann worked for 20 years at the Federal University of Pernambuco, in Recife, Brazil and was a Fulbright Scholar at LRDC-University of Pittsburgh (1986). Her work on everyday mathematics has been published in English, Portuguese, Spanish, and Japanese. Some of her studies appear in "Street Mathematics and School Mathematics" (with T. Nunes and D. Carraher, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993). At Tufts (since 1994), her research focus on children's early algebraic reasoning and on classroom activities designed to explore the algebraic character of arithmetic in elementary school (see http://ase.tufts.edu/education/earlyalgebra/). She is equally at home in Mathematics Education, Developmental Psychology, and Cross-Cultural Psychology.



Schliemann, A.D., Carraher, D.W., & Brizuela, B. (2007). Bringing Out the Algebraic Character of Arithmetic: From Children's Ideas to Classroom Practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schliemann, A.D. & Carraher, D.W. (Eds.) (1998). A Compreensão de Conceitos Aritméticos: Pesquisa e Ensino, (Understanding Arithmetical Concepts: Research and Teaching). SBEM/Papirus, São Paulo, Brazil.  

Nunes, T., Schliemann, A.D. & Carraher, D.W. (1993). Mathematics in the Streets and in Schools. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.

Carraher, T.N. Schliemann, A.D. & Carraher, D.W. (1991) En la Vida Diez, en la Escuela Cero, Mexico, Ed. Siglo Veinteuno. (Spanish edition of Na Vida, Dez; na Escola, Zero).

Carraher, T.N., Schliemann, A.D. & Carraher, D.W. (1988). Na Vida Dez, na Escola Zero. (A in Everyday Life, F at School) São Paulo, Ed.Cortez.


Carraher, D.W., Schliemann, A.D. & Schwartz, J. (in press). Early algebra is not the same as algebra early. In J. Kaput. D. Carraher, & M. Blanton (Eds.), Algebra in the Early Grades.  Mahwah , NJ, Erlbaum, pp. 235-272.

Martinez, M., Schliemann, A.D., & Carraher, D.W. (forthcoming). Early Algebra and mathematical generalization. Zentralblatt fur Didaktik der Mathematik.

Carraher, D.W. & Schliemann, A. D. (2007) Early Algebra and Algebraic Reasoning. In F. Lester (ed.) Second Handbook of Research on  Mathematics Teaching and Learning: A project of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Vol II. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, pp. 669-705.

Schliemann, A.D. (2006).  Capitalizing on multiple perspectives. Human Development, 49(4), 46-48.

Carraher, D., Schliemann, A.D., Brizuela, B., & Earnest, D. (2006). Arithmetic and Algebra in early Mathematics Education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, Vol 37.

Carraher, D., Schliemann, A.D., & Brizuela, B. (2005). Treating operations as functions. In D. W. Carraher, & R. Nemirovsky (Eds.) Media and Meaning. CD-ROM issue of Monographs of the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education.

Brizuela, B.M.,& Schliemann, A.D. (2004). Ten-year-old students solving linear equations. For the Learning of Mathematics, 24(2), 33-40.

Brizuela, B.M. & Schliemann, A.D. (2003). Fourth graders solving equations. In N. Pateman , B. Dougherty, & J. Zilliox (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2003 Joint Meeting of PME and PME-NA. University of Hawai'i: Honolulu, HI, Vol. 2, pp. 137-144.

Schliemann, A.D., Carraher, D.W., Brizuela, B.M., Earnest, D., Goodrow, A., Lara-Roth. S. & Peled, I.(2003). Algebra in elementary school. In N. Pateman , B. Dougherty, & J. Zilliox (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2003 Joint Meeting of PME and PME-NA. CRDG, College of Education, University of Hawai'i: Honolulu , HI, Vol. 4, pp. 127-134.

Carraher, D.W. & Schliemann, A.D. (2002). The transfer dilemma. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 11(1) 1-24.

Carraher, D.W. & Schliemann, A.D. (2002). Is everyday mathematics truly relevant to mathematics education? In J. Moshkovich & M. Brenner (Eds.) Everyday Mathematics. Monographs of the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 11, 131-153.

Carraher, D.W. & Schliemann, A.D. (2002). Modeling reasoning. In K. Gravemeijer, R., Lehrer, B., Oers, and L. Verschaffel (Eds.). Symbolizing, Modeling and Tool Use in Mathematics Education. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 295-304.

Schliemann, A.D. (2002). Artifacts and Notational Systems as Tools for Understanding Mathematics. In A. Sfard & K. McClain (Eds.) Perspectives on the role of designed artifacts in mathematics learning. Journal of Learning Sciences, 11(2&3, 301-317.

Schliemann, A.D. & Carraher, D.W. (2002). The Evolution of Mathematical Understanding: Everyday Versus Idealized Reasoning. Developmental Review, 22(2), 242-266.

Carraher, D., Schliemann, A., & Brizuela, B. (2001). Can Young Students Represent and Manipulate Unknowns. Proceedings of the XXV Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Utrecht, The Netherlands (invited research forum paper), Vol. 1, 130-140.

Schliemann, A.D. & Carraher, D.W. (2001). Culture and Cognition. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.) Cultural Psychology. London/New York, Oxford University Press.

Schliemann, A.D., Carraher, D.W. & Brizuela, B.M. (2001). When tables become function tables. Proceedings of the XXV Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Vol. 4, 145-152.

Carraher, D.W. & Schliemann, A.D. (2000). Lessons from everyday reasoning in mathematics education: Realism versus meaningfulness. In D. Jonassen and S. Land (Eds.) Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments. Mahwah , NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Ass. Publishers, 172-195.

Carraher, D.W., Schliemann, A.D., & Brizuela, B.M. (2000). Early Algebra, Early Arithmetic: Treating Operations as Functions. Plenary Address. XXII PME-NA Meeting, Tucson, AZ, October 7 to 10, 2000 [CD-Rom with video excerpts].

Schliemann, A.D. (2000). Constraint, cooperation, and algebraic problem solving. New Ideas in Psychology,18 (2-3), 157-169.

Schliemann, A.D. (2000). Informal reasoning. Encyclopedia of Psychology. American Psychological Association/Oxford University Press.

Schliemann, A.D. (1998). Logic of meanings and situated cognition. Learning and Instruction, 8(6), 549-560.

Schliemann, A.D., Araujo, C., Cassundé, M.A., Macedo, S. & Nicéas, L. (1998). Multiplicative commutativity in school children and street sellers. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29(4), 422-435.

Schliemann, A.D., Carraher, D.W. & Ceci, S.J. (1997). Everyday Cognition. In J.W.Berry, P.R. Dasen & T.S. Sarawathi (Eds.) Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology (Second Edition). Vol. 2: Basic processes and developmental psychology. Boston, Allyn & Bacon, 177-215.

Schliemann, A.D., Santos, C.M. & Canuto, S.F. (1993). Constructing written algorithms: A case study. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 12, 155-172.

Carraher, D. & Schliemann, A. (1993). Learning about relations between number and quantity in and out of school. Dokkyo International Review, 6, 63-96, Japan.

Schliemann, A.D., Brito Lima, A.P. & Santiago, M.L. (1992). Understanding equivalences through balance scales. Proceedings XVI International Conference Psychology of Mathematics Education, v. II, 298-305, Durham, NH.

Schliemann, A.D. & Carraher, D.W. (1992). Proportional reasoning in and out of school. In P. Light & G. Butterworth (Eds.) Context and Cognition. Hemel Hempstead , Harvester-Wheatsheaf, 47-73.

Carraher, D.W. & Schliemann, A.D. (1991). Children's understanding of fractions as expressions of relative magnitude. Proceedings of the XV International Conference Psychology of Mathematics Education. Assisi, Italy.

Carraher, D.W. & Schliemann, A.D. (1991). Teachers' Guide to Divide and Conquer Software. New York , Sunburst Communications.

Schliemann, A.D. & Nunes, T. (1990). A situated schema of proportionality. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 259-268.

Schliemann, A.D. & Acioly , N.M. (1989). Mathematical knowledge developed at work: the contributions of practice versus the contribution of schooling. Cognition and Instruction, 6(3), 185-221.

Schliemann, A.D. & Acioly , N.M. (1989). Numbers and operations in everyday problem solving. In C. Keitel, A. Bishop, P. Damerow & P. Gerdes (Eds.) Mathematics, Education, and Society. Paris, UNESCO, Science and Technology Education, Document Series No. 35.

Carraher, T.N., Schliemann, A.D. & Carraher, D.W. (1988). Mathematical concepts in everyday life. In G. Saxe e M. Gearhart (ed.) Children's Mathematics, New Directions for Child Development. San Francisco, Jossey Bass, 71-87.

Schliemann, A.D. (1988). Understanding the combinatorial system: Development, school learning, and everyday experience. Quarterly Newsletter of the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, 10 (1), 3-7.

Carraher, T.N., Carraher, D.W. & Schliemann, A.D. (1987). Written and oral mathematics. Journal for Research on Mathematics Education, 18(2), 83-97.

Carraher, T.N. & Schliemann, A.D. (1987). Manipulating equivalences in the market and in life. Proceedings of the XI Conference Psychology of Mathematics Education. Montreal, Canada, Vol. I, 289-294.

Carraher, T.N., Carraher, D.W. & Schliemann, A.D. (1985). Mathematics in the streets and in schools. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 21-29.

Carraher, T.N. & Schliemann, A.D. (1985). Computation routines prescribed by schools: help or hindrance? Journal for Research on Mathematics Education, 16, 37-44.,

Schliemann, A.D. (1984). Mathematics among carpenters and carpenters apprentices: implications for school teaching. In P. Damerow, M. Dunckley, B. Nebres & B. Werry (Eds.), Mathematics for all, Science and Technology Education Document Series, UNESCO, No. 2562.