Fig1_6 Telescopes

Fig1_6 Telescopes

Fig. 1.6 . Light waves that fall on the Earth from a distant object are parallel to one another, and they are focused to a point by the lens or mirror of a telescope. Early telescopes were refractors (left). The curved surfaces of the convex objective lens bend the incoming parallel light rays by refraction, and bring them to a focus at the center of the focal plane, where the light rays meet and an image is created. A second, smaller lens, called the eyepiece, was used to magnify the image in the early refractors; later versions placed photographic or electronic detectors at the focal plane. In 1670 the English physicist Isaac Newton (1643-1727) constructed the first reflecting telescope (right), which uses a large, concave, or parabolic, primary mirror to collect and focus light. A small, flat secondary mirror, inclined at an angle of 45 degrees to the telescope axis, reflects the light sideways, at a place now known as the Newtonian focus. Other light-deflecting mirror arrangements can be used to obtain any desired focal length, which varies with the curvature and position of small convex mirrors.

Copyright 2010, Professor Kenneth R. Lang, Tufts University