graphic 243 Science and Technology Center, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA. 02155 | Phone: (617) 627-4353
  graphic Optical Diagnostics for Diseased and Engineered Tissues  
  graphic Principal Investigator: Irene Georgakoudi  

About the Group

Research Areas



Lab News





Peer-Reviewed Publications and Book Chapters

  • Liu Z, Pouli D, Sood D, Sundarakrishnan A, Hui Mingalone CK, Arendt LM, Alonzo C, Quinn KP, Kuperwasser C, Zeng L, Schnelldorfer T, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Automated quantification of three-dimensional organization of fiber-like structures in biological tissues. Biomaterials. 2016 Nov 25;116:34-47. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.11.041. PMID: 27914265. For access to the matlab code used to calculate 3D fiber orientation and variance, download the zip file.
  • Pouli D, Balu M, Alonzo CA, Liu Z, Quinn KP, Rius-Diaz F, Harris RM, Kelly KM, Tromberg BJ, Georgakoudi I. Imaging mitochondrial dynamics in human skin reveals depth-dependent hypoxia and malignant potential for diagnosis. Sci Transl Med. 2016 Nov 30;8(367):367ra169. PMID: 27903865
  • Quinn KP, Sullivan KE, Liu Z, Ballard Z, Siokatas C, Georgakoudi I, Black LD. Optical metrics of the extracellular matrix predict compositional and mechanical changes after myocardial infarction. Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 7;6:35823. doi: 10.1038/srep35823.PMID: 27819334.
  • Alonzo CA, Karaliota S, Pouli D, Liu Z, Karalis KP, Georgakoudi I. Two-photon excited fluorescence of intrinsic fluorophores enables label-free assessment of adipose tissue function. Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 5;6:31012. PMID: 27491409.
  • Applegate MB, Alonzo C, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL, Omenetto FG. A simple model of multiphoton micromachining in silk hydrogels. Applied Phys Let 2016, 108: 241903.
  • Lyons J, Polmear M, Mineva ND, Romagnoli M, Sonenshein GE, Georgakoudi I. Endogenous light scattering as an optical signature of circulating tumor cell clusters. Biomed Opt Express 2016; 7: 1042-1050.
  • Wang M, Zuiris JA, Meng F, Rees H, Sun S ,Deng P, Han Y, Gao X, Pouli D, Wu Q, Georgakoudi I, Liu DR, Xu Q. Efficient delivery of genome-editing proteins using bioreducible lipid nanoparticles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2016; In press
  • Quinn KP, Leal EC, Tellechea A, Kafanas A, Auster ME, Veves A, Georgakoudi I. Diabetic wounds exhibit distinct microstructural and metabolic heterogeneity through label-free multiphoton microscopy. J. Invest Dermatol 2016; 136:342-344. PMID: 26763462
  • Schnelldorfer T, Jenkins RL, Birkett DH, Wright VJ, Price LL, Georgakoudi I. Laparoscopic narrow band imaging for detection of occult cancer metastases: a randomized feasibility trial. Surg Endosc 2016; 30:1656-1661. PMID: 26194251
  • Abbott RD, Borowsky FE, Quinn KP, Bernstein DL, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL. Non-invasive assessments of adipose tissue metabolism in vitro. Ann Biomed Eng 2016; 44:725-732.
  • Liu Z, Quinn KP, Speroni L, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Georgakoudi I. Rapid three-dimensional quantification of voxel-wise collagen fiber orientation. Biomedical Optics Express 2015 Jun; 6(7): 2294-310
  • Bellas E, Rollins A, Moreau JE, Lo T, Quinn KP, Fourligas N, Georgakoudi I, Leisk GG, Mazan M, Thane KE, Taeymans O, Hoffman AM, Kaplan DL, Kirker-Head CA.  Equine Model for Soft Tissue Regeneration. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B, 2015 Aug; 103(6): 1217-27
  • Yigit S, Tokareva O, Varone A, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL. Bioengineered silk gene delivery system for nuclear targeting. Macromol Biosci. 2014;14(9):1291-8.
  • Golberg A, Khan S, Belov V, Quinn KP, Albadawi H, Broelsch GF, Watkins MT, Georgakoudi I, Papisov M, Mihm MC, Austen WG, Yarmush ML. Rejuvenating skin with non-invasive pulsed elecdtric fields. Scientific Reports. 2015 May 12;5:10187
  • Ozkucur N, Quinn KP, Pang JC, Georgakoudi I, Miller E, Levin M, Kaplan DL (2015). Membrane potential depolarization causes alterations in neuron arrangement and connectivity in cocultures.  Brain and Behavior 5(1): 24-38.
  • Quinn KP, Golberg A, Broelsch GF, Khan S, Villiger M, Bouma B, Austen WG, Sheridan RL, Mihm MC, Yarmush ML, Georgakoudi I. An automated image processing method to quantify collagen fibre organization within cutaneous scar tissue. Experimental Dermatology 2015; 24(1): 78-80. **Featured on Issue Cover
  • Xylas J, Varone A, Quinn KP, McLaughlin-Drubin ME, Thieu HT, Garcia-Moliner M, House M, Hunter M, Münger K, Georgakoudi I. Noninvasive assessment of mitochondrial organization in three-dimensional tissues reveals changes associated with cancer development. Int J Cancer, 2015; 136(2): 322-332.
  • Yigit S, Tokareva O, Varone A, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL (2014). Bioengineered silk gene delivery system for nuclear targeting. Macromol Biosci 14(9): 1291-8.
  • Schnelldorfer T, Jenkins RL, Bikett DH, Georgakoudi I. From Shadow to Light: Visualization of extrahepatic bile ducts using image-enhanced laparoscopy. Surg Innov 2015; 22(2):194-200. PMID: 24786338
  • Varone A, Xylas J, Quinn KP, Pouli D, Sridharan G, McLaughlin-Drubin ME, Alonzo C, Lee K, Münger K, Georgakoudi I. Endogenous two-photon fluorescence imaging elucidates metabolicchanges related to enhanced glycolysis and glutamine consumption in pre-cancerous epithe-AQ3 lial tissues. Cancer Res 2014; 74:3067-3075.
  • Wang M, Alberti K, Varone A, Pouli D, Georgakoudi I, Xu Q. Enhanced Intracellular siRNA Delivery Using Bioreducible Lipid-like Nanoparticles (2014). Advanced Healthcare Materials 3(9): 1398-403.
  • Barnes C*, Speroni L*, Quinn KP*, Montevil M, Saetzler K, Bode-Animashaun G, McKerr G, Georgakoudi I, Downes S, Sonnenschein C, Howard CV, Soto AM (2014). From single cells to tissues: interactions between the matrix and human breast cells in real time. PLoS One 9(4):e93325 * Equal Contribution
  • Romagnoli M, Mineva ND, Polmear M, Conrad C, Srinivasan S, Loussouarn D, Barillé-Nion S, Georgakoudi I, Dagg Á, McDermott EW, Duffy MJ, McGowan PM, Schlomann U, Parsons M, Bartsch JW, Sonenshein GE (2014). ADAM8 expression in invasive breast cancer promotes tumor dissemination and metastasis. EMBO Mol Med 6: 278–294.
  • Hayden RS, Quinn KP, Alonzo CA, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL (2014). Quantitative Methods to Characterize Mineralized Silk Film Remodeling during Long-Term Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Culture. Biomaterials 35: 3794-3802.
  • Sullivan K, Quinn KP, Tang K, Georgakoudi I, Black LD (2014). Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Following Myocardial Infarction Influences the Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Stem Cell Research & Therapy 5(1): 14.
  • Hayden RS, Fortin J-P, Harwood B, Subramanian B, Quinn KP, Georgakoudi I, Kopin AS, Kaplan DL (2014). Cell-tethered ligands modulate bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Advanced Functional Materials 24(4): 472-479.
  • Speroni L, Whitt GS, Xylas J, Quinn KP, Jondeau-Cabaton A, Georgakoudi I, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM (2014). Hormonal regulation of epithelial organization in a 3D breast tissue culture model. Tissue Engineering Part C Methods. 20(1): 42-51.
  • Williams C, Quinn KP, Georgakoudi I, Black LD (2014). Young developmental age cardiac extracellular matrix promotes the expansion of neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro. Acta Biomateriala 10:194-204.
  • Marturano JE, Xylas JF, Sridharan GV, Georgakoudi I, Kuo K. (2014). Lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinks may be assessed as markers of functional properties of tendon tissue formation. Acta Biomater S1742-7061(13)00591-6.
  • Quinn KP, Sridharan GV, Hayden RS, Kaplan DL, Lee K, Georgakoudi I (2013). Quantitative metabolic imaging using endogenous fluorescence to detect stem cell differentiation. Scientific Reports 3:3432.
  • MacDonald D, Hunter M, Quinn KP, Georgakoudi I (2013). Autocorrelation method for fractal analysis in nonrectangular image domains. Optics Letters 38:4477-9.
  • Chang T, Zimmerley M, Quinn KP, Lamarre-Jounne I, Kaplan DL, Beaurepaire E, Georgakoudi I (2013). Non-invasive monitoring of cell metabolism and lipid production in 3D engineered human adipose tissues using label-free multiphoton microscopy. Biomaterials 34(34):8607-16.
  • Quinn KP, Georgakoudi I (2013). Rapid quantification of pixel-wise fiber orientation data in micrographs. Journal of Biomedical Optics 18(4):046003.
  • Ward A, Quinn KP, Bellas E, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL (2013). Noninvasive metabolic imaging of engineered 3D human adipose tissue in a perfusion bioreactor. PLoS One 8(2):e55696.
  • Marturano JE, Arena JD, Schiller ZA, Georgakoudi I, Kuo CK. Characterization of mechanical and biochemical properties of developing embryonic tendon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013; 110 (16): 6370-6375. PMID: 23576745.
  • Angheloiu GO, van de Poll SW, Georgakoudi I, Motz JT, Haka AS, Podrez E, Fitzmaurice M, Dasari RR, Feld MS, Kramer JR. Intrinsic versus laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for coronary atherosclerosis: a generational comparison model for testing diagnostic accuracy. Appl Spectrosc. 2012 Dec;66(12):1403-10.
  • Traphagen SB, Fourligas N, Xylas JF, Sengupta S, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I, Yelick PC. Characterization of natural, decellularized and reseeded porcine tooth bud matrices. Biomaterials 2012 Jul;33(21):5287-96.
  • Ward A, Quinn KP, Bellas E, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL. Noninvasive metabolic imaging of engineered 3D human adipose tissue in a perfusion bioreactor.  PLoS One 2013; 8(2): e55696.
  • Xylas J, Quinn KP, Hunter MA, Georgakoudi I. Improved Fourier-based characterization of intracellular fractal features. Optics Express 2012; 20:23442-55.
  • Quinn KP, Bellas E, Fourligas N, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Characterization of metabolic changes associated with the functional development of 3D engineered tissues by non-invasive, dynamic measurement of individual cell redox ratios. Biomaterials 2012; 33(21): 5341-8.
  • Georgakoudi I, Quinn KP.  Optical imaging using endogenous contrast to assess metabolic state.  Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 2012; 14: 351–67.
  • Wray L, Hu X, Gallego J, Georgakoudi I, Omenetto F, Schmidt D, Kaplan D. Effect of processing on silk-based biomaterials:Reproducibility and biocompatibility. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part B - Applied Biomaterials, 2011 99B:89-101.
  • Levitt J, McLaughlin-Drubin ME, Munger K, Georgakoudi I. Automated biochemical, morphological, and organizational of pre-cancerous changes from endogenous two-photon fluorescence images. PLoS One 2011; 6(9): e24765
  • Greiner C, Hunter M, Huang P, Fransisca R, Georgakoudi I. Confocal backscattering-based detection of leukemic cells in flowing blood samples. Cytometry Part A, 2011 79A:874-883.
  • Greiner C, Hunter M, Huang P, Fransisca R, Georgakoudi I. Confocal backscattering spectroscopy for leukemic and normal blood cell discrimination. Cytometry Part A, 2011 79A:866-873.
  • Hsiao A, Hunter M, Greiner C, Gupta S, Georgakoudi I. Non-invasive identification of subcellular organization and nuclear morphology features associated with leukemic cells using light scattering spectroscopy. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2011 1 Mar 16 (03): 037007
  • Hwu D, Boutrus S, Greiner C, DiMeo T, Kuperwasser C, Georgakoudi I. Assessment of the role of circulating breast cancer cells in tumor formation and metastatic potential using in vivo flow cytometry. Journal of Biomedical Optics (Letter), 2011 1 April 16(04): 040501.
  • Angheloiu GO, Haka AS, Georgakoudi I, Arendt J, Müller MG, Scepanovic OR, Evanko SP, Wight TN, Mukherjee P, Waldeck DH, Dasari RR, Fitzmaurice M, Kramer JR, Feld MS. Detection of coronary atherosclerotic plaques with superficial proteoglycans and foam cells using real-time intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Mar;215(1):96-102. Epub 2010 Nov 27.
  • Hronik-Tupaj M, Rice WL, Cronin-Golomb M, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Osteoblastic differentiation and stress response of human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to alternating current electric fields. Biomed Eng Online. 2011 Jan 26;10(1):9.
  • Xylas J, Alt-Holland A, Garlick J, Hunter M, Georgakoudi I. Intrinsic optical biomarkers associated with the invasive potential of tumor cells in engineered tissue models. Biomed Opt Express. 2010 Nov 10;1(5):1387-1400.
  • Mieszawska AJ, Fourligas N, Georgakoudi I, Ouhib NM, Belton DJ, Perry CC, Kaplan DL. Osteoinductive silk-silica composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. Biomaterials. 2010 Dec;31(34):8902-10.
  • Kwon H, Kim HJ, Rice WL, Subramanian B, Park SH, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL. Development of an in vitro model to study the impact of BMP-2 on metastasis to bone. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2010 Sep 23.
  • Rice WL, Kaplan D, Georgakoudi I. Quantitative optical Biomarkers of Stem Cell Differentiation. PLoSONE 2010, 5:e10075.
  • Huang P, Hunter M, Georgakoudi I. Confocal light scattering spectroscopic imaging system for in situ tissue characterization. Applied Optics 2009, 48:2595-2599.
  • Gupta S, Hunter M, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Optical characterization of the nanoscale organization of mineral deposits on silk films. Applied Optics 2009, 48: D45-51.
  • Bayan C, Levitt J, Miller E, Kaplan D, Georgakoudi I. Fully-automated, quantitative, non-invasive assessment of collagen fiber content and organization in thick collagen gels. Journal of Applied Physics 2009, 105:102042.
  • Gupta S, Hunter M, Cebe P, Levitt J, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Non-invasive optical characterization of biomaterial mineralization. Biomaterials 2008, 29:2359-2369.
  • Rice WL, Firdous S, Gupta S, Hunter M, Wong Po Foo C, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Non-invasive characterization of structure and morphology of silk fibroin biomaterials using non-linear spectral imaging. Biomaterials 2008, 29:2015-2024.
  • Rice W, Kaplan D, Georgakoudi I. Quantitative biomarkers of stem cell differentiation based on intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence. Journal of Biomedical Optics (Letter) 2007, 12:060504.
  • Levitt J, Hunter M, Mujat C, McLaughlin-Durbin M, Munger K, Georgakoudi I. Diagnostic cellular organization features extracted from autofluorescence images. Optics Letters 2007, 32:3305-3307.
  • Mujat C, Greiner C, Baldwin A, Levitt J, Tian F, Stucenski L, Hunter M, Kim YL, Backman V, Feld M, Munger K, Georgakoudi I. Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells. International Journal of Cancer 2008; 122:363-371.
  • Boutrus S, Greiner C, Hwu D, Chan M, Kuperwasser C, Lin C, Georgakoudi I. A Portable Two-Color In Vivo Flow Cytometer for Real-Time Detection of Fluorescently-Labeled Circulating Cells. JBO Letters 2007; 12:020507.
  • Georgakoudi I, Tsai I, Greiner Cg, Wong Cg, DeFelice Jg, Kaplan D. Intrinsic fluorescence changes associated with the structural conformation of silk fibroin in biomaterial matrices. Optics Express 2007;15: 1043-1053.
  • Levitt Jg, Baldwin A, Papadakis A, Puri Su, Xylas Ju, Munger K, Georgakoudi I. Intrinsic fluorescence and redox changes associated with apoptosis of primary epithelial cells. Journal of Biomedical Optics 2006;11:064012 (Cover feature).
  • Angheloiu G, Arendt, J, Müller, M, Haka, A, Georgakoudi I, Motz J, Scepanovic O, Kuban B, Myles J, Miller F, Podrez E, Fitzmaurice M, Kramer J, Feld M. Intrinsic fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy identify superficial foam cells in coronary plaques prone to erosion. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2006; 26:1594-600.
  • Georgakoudi I. The Color of Cancer. J. Luminescence 2006;119-120: 75-83.
  • Georgakoudi I, Van Dam J Characterization of Dysplastic Tissue Morphology and Biochemistry in Barrett’s Esophagus using Diffuse Reflectance and Light Scattering Spectroscopy. Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2005;7:100-105.
  • Wei X, Sipkins D, Pitsillides C, Novak J, Georgakoudi I, Lin C. Real-time detection of circulating apoptotic cells by in vivo flow cytometry. Mol Imaging 2005; 4: 415-416.
  • Georgakoudi I, Solban N, Novak J, Rice W, Hasan T, Lin C. In vivo flow cytometry: A new method for enumerating circulating tumor cells. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 5044-5047.
  • Novak J, Georgakoudi I, Wei X, Prossin A, Lin C. An in vivo flow cytometer for real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells. Opt Lett 2004; 29: 77-79.
  • Badizadegan K, Backman V, Boone CW, Crum CP, Dasari RR, Georgakoudi I, Keefe K, Munger K, Shapshay S, Sheets EE, Feld MS. Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer. Faraday Discuss 2004; 126: 265-279.
  • Tunnell JW, Desjardins AE, Galindo L, Georgakoudi I, McGee SA, Mirkovic J, Mueller MG, Nazemi J, Nguyen FT, Wax A, Zhang Q, Dasari RR, Feld MS. Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2003; 2: 505-14.
  • Mueller M, Valdez T, Georgakoudi I, Backman V, Fuentes C, Kabani S, Laver N, Wang Z, Boone C, Dasari R, Shapsay S and Feld MS. Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma. Cancer 2003; 97:1681-1692.
  • Mueller M, Wax A, Georgakoudi I, Galindo L, Dasari R, Feld M. Multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance portable spectrofluorimeter to assist real time guidance to biopsy in precancer screening. Review of Scientific Instruments 2002; 73: 3933-393.
  • Georgakoudi I, Sheets EE, Mueller M, Backman V, Crum CP, Badizadegan K and Feld MS. Tri-modal spectroscopy as a tool for the detection and biochemical/morphological characterization of cervical pre-cancers in vivo. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002; 186: 374-382.
  • Georgakoudi I, Jacobson BC, Mueller MG, Sheets EE, Badizadegan K, Carr-Locke D, Crum CP, Boone CW, Dasari RR, Van Dam J and Feld MS. NAD(P)H and collagen as quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes. Cancer Research 2002; 62: 682-687.
  • Backman V, Gopal V, Kalashnikov M, Badizadegan K, Gurjar R, Wax A, Georgakoudi I, Mueller M, Boone CW, Dasari RD and Feld MS. Measuring cellular structure at submicron scale with light scattering spectroscopy. IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron 2001; 7: 887-893.
  • Gurjar R, Backman V, Perelman LT, Georgakoudi I, et al. Functional imaging of human epithelia with polarized light scattering spectroscopy. Nature Medicine 2001; 7: 1245-1248.
  • Müller MG, Georgakoudi I, Zhang Q, Wu J and Feld MS. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: Disentangling effects of scattering and absorption. Applied Optics 2001; 40: 4633-4646.
  • Bigelow CE, Harkrider CJ, Conover DL, Foster TH, Georgakoudi I, Mitra S, Nichols MG and Rajadhyaksha M. Retrofit design and implementation of confocal scanning using a commercial inverted fluorescence microscope platform. Review of Scientific Instruments 2001; 72: 3407-3410.
  • Georgakoudi I, Jacobson BC, Van Dam J et al. Fluorescence, reflectance and light scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 1620-1629.
  • Coutier S, Mitra S, Bezdetnaya LN, Parache RM, Georgakoudi I, Foster TH and Guillemin F. Effects of fluence rate on cell survival and photobleaching in meta-tetra (hydroxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC) photosensitized colo 26 multicell tumor spheroids. Photochem. Photobiol. 2001; 73: 297-301.
  • Yang C, Wax A, Georgakoudi I, et al. Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy. Opt Letters 2000; 25: 1526-1528.
  • Georgakoudi I, Keng PC and Foster TH. Hypoxia significantly reduces aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX synthesis in EMT6 cells. Br. J. Cancer 1999; 79: 1372-1377.
  • Georgakoudi I and Foster TH. Effects of the subcellular redistribution of two nile blue derivatives on photodynamic oxygen consumption. Photochem. Photobiol. 1998; 68: 115-122.
  • Georgakoudi I and Foster TH. Singlet oxygen- versus nonsinglet oxygen-mediated mechanisms of sensitizer photobleaching and their effects on photodynamic dosimetry. Photochem. Photobiol.1998; 67: 612-62.
  • Georgakoudi I, Nichols MG and Foster TH. The mechanism of Photofrin photobleaching and its consequences for photodynamic dosimetry. Photochem. Photobiol. 1997; 65: 135-144.

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