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Research

Conservation of Endangered Hawaiian Waterbirds

I have been working since 1992 to protect endangered waterbirds in Hawaii. Most of the endangered species focus in Hawaii has been on forest birds, while endangered waterbirds largely have been ignored. Hawaiian waterbirds depend on wetland availability, which currently is 30% less than its original extent, and on avoiding introduced predators. As a consequence of these and related problems, all of Hawaii's endemic waterbirds are endangered.

My research has been in close affiliation with the USFWS and the Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife, and more recently the Hawaii Natural Heritage Program. Until recently I have worked mostly on Hawaiian Stilt conservation. I am continuing work on stilts, and am now working on Hawaiian Moorhen and on the problem of optimal wetland design when there are multiple species of waterbird present at a wetland. The endangered waterbirds that use lowland wetlands on the main islands are the Hawaiian stilt, Hawaiian coot, Hawaiian moorhen, koloa (Hawaiian Duck), and in some areas Nene. Although all of these species might use the same wetland, habitat requirements differ significantly among species - for example, stilts like shallow water and no vegetation in or around ponds, while coots like deep water with extensive tall vegetation. Knowing the optimal approach to designing wetlands to support these endangered waterbirds would enhance conservation efforts.

I am completing development of a software package, MESHH (Managing Endangered Species Habitat in Hawaii), that will allow wetland managers in Hawaii to determine optimal wetland design for these endangered species. The first version of MESHH is being completed now, and model predictions will be field tested starting next year.

Software
Reed, J. M., N. Fefferman, C. S. Elphick, and M. Silbernagle. 2011. MESHH: Managing Endangered Species Habitat in Hawaii (available Fall 2011).

Publications

Endangered Hawaiian Waterbirds

  • (Download PDF) van Rees, C., and J. M. Reed. 2015. Water diplomacy from a duck's perspective: wildlife as stakeholders in water management. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 155:28-42.
  • (Download PDF) Reed, J. M., C. R. Field, M. D. Silbernagle, A. Nadig, K. Goebel, A. Dibben-Young, P. Donaldson, and C. S. Elphick. 2015. Application of the complete-data likelihood to estimate juvenile and adult survival for endangered species management. Animal Conservation 18:176-185. doi:10.1111/acv.12156
  • (Download PDF) van Rees, C. B., and J. M. Reed. 2014. Wetland loss in Hawai`i since human settlement. Wetlands 34:335-350.
  • (Download PDF) Reed, J. M., D.W. DesRochers, E. A. Vanderwerf, and J. M. Scott. 2012. Conservation reliance and long-term persistence of Hawaii's endangered avifauna. BioScience 62:881-892.
  • (Download PDF) Reed, J. M., C. S. Elphick, A. F. Zuur, and E. N. Ieno. 2011. Long-term population trends of endangered Hawaiian waterbirds. Population Ecology 53:473-481.
  • (Download PDF) DesRochers, D.W., S. R. McWillaims, and J. M. Reed. 2010. Evaluating the potential for energy and protein to limit abundance of the endangered Hawaiian Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis). Journal of Wildlife Management 74:788-795.
  • (Download PDF) DesRochers, D.W., M. D. Silbernagle, A. Nadig, and J. M. Reed. 2010. Body size, growth, and feather mass of the endangered Hawaiian Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis). Pacific Science 64:327-333.
  • (Download PDF) Müller, J.G., Y. Ogneva-Himmelberger, S. Lloyd, and J. M. Reed. 2010. Predicting pre-historic taro lo'i distribution in Hawaii. Economic Botany 64:22-33.
  • (Download PDF) Desrochers, D. W., S. R. McWilliams, M. D. Silbernagle, and J. M Reed. 2009. Macronutrient profiles of wetland food plants consumed by the endangered Hawaiian Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis). Wetlands 29: 845-853.
  • (Download PDF) Desrochers, D. W., L. K. Butler, M. D. Silbernagle, and J. M Reed. 2009. Observations of molt in an endangered rallid, the Hawaiian Moorhen. Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 121:148-153.
  • (Download PDF) DesRochers, D. W., H. Gee, and J. M. Reed. 2008. Hawaiian moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicnesis) calls, response to playback, and comparison of alternative survey methods. Journal of Field Ornithology 79:448-457.
  • (Download PDF) Reed, J. M., C. S. Elphick, A. F. Zuur, E. N. Ieno, and G. M. Smith. 2007. Time series analysis of Hawaiian waterbirds. Pages 615-632 in, Analysing Ecological Data. A. F. Zuur, E. N. Ieno, and G. M. Smith. Springer.
  • Reed, J. M., E. M. Gray, D. Lewis, L. W. Oring, R. Coleman, T. Burr, and P. Luscomb. 1999. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks. Wilson Bulletin 111:478-487.
  • Robinson, J. A., J. M. Reed, J. P. Skorupa, and L. W. Oring. 1999. Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus). In Birds of North America, No. 449 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
  • Reed, J. M., M. D. Silbernagle, K. Evans, A. Engilis, Jr., and L. W. Oring. 1998. Subadult movement patterns of the endangered Hawaiian stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Auk 115:791-797.
  • (Download PDF) Reed, J. M., C. S. Elphick, and L. W. Oring. 1998. Life-history and viability analysis of the endangered Hawaiian stilt. Biological Conservation 84:35-45.
  • (Download PDF) Reed, J. M. 1995. Ecosystem management and an avian habitat dilemma. Wildlife Society Bulletin 23:453-457.
  • (Download PDF) Reed, J. M., L. W. Oring, and M. S. Silbernagle. 1994. Metapopulation dynamics and conservation of the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Transactions of the Western Regional Wildlife Society 30:7-14.
  • (Download PDF) Reed, J. M. and L. W. Oring. 1993. Long-term population trends of the endangered Ae'o (Hawaiian stilt, Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Transactions of the Western Regional Wildlife Society 29:54-60.

Shorebird Ecology

  • (Download PDF) Galbraith, H., D. W. DesRochers, S. Brown, and J. M. Reed. 2014. Predicting vulnerabilities of North American Shorebirds to Climate Change. PLoS ONE 9(9):e108899
  • (Download PDF) Andersson, M., J. Wallander, J, L. W. Oring, E. Akst, J. M. Reed, and R. C. Fleischer. 2003. Adaptive seasonal trend in brood sex ratio: test in two sister species with contrasting mating systems. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16:510-515.
  • Reed, J. M., N. Warnock, and L. W. Oring (eds). 1997. Conservation and Management of Shorebirds in the Western Great Basin of North America. International Wader Studies 9.
  • Reed, J. M., and L. W. Oring. 1997. Intra- and inter-clutch patterns in egg in the spotted sandpiper. Journal of Field Ornithology 68:296-301.
  • Reed, J. M., N. Warnock, and L. W. Oring. 1997. Censusing shorebirds in the western Great Basin of North America. International Wader Studies 9:29-36.
  • Oring, L. W., and J. M. Reed. 1997. Shorebirds of the Western Great Basin of North America: Overview and Importance to Continental Populations. International Wader Studies 9: 6-12.
  • Oring, L.W., E. M. Gray, and J. M. Reed. Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia). 1997. In A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America, No. 289. The Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
  • Oring, L. W., J. M. Reed, and S. J. Maxson. 1994. Copulation patterns and mate guarding in the sex-role reversed, polyandrous spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia. Animal Behaviour 47:1065-1072.
  • Oring, L. W., J. M. Reed, and J. A. R. Alberico. 1994. Mate acquisition tactics in polyandrous spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia): the role of age and experience. Behavioral Ecology 5:9-16.
  • Reed, J. M., and L. W. Oring. 1993. Philopatry, site fidelity, dispersal, and survival of Spotted Sandpipers. Auk 110:541-551.
  • Reed, J. M. and L. W. Oring. 1993. Banding is infrequently associated with foot loss in Spotted Sandpipers. Journal of Field Ornithology 64:145-148.
  • Oring, L. W., R. C. Fleischer, J. M. Reed, and K. E. Marsden. 1992. Cuckoldry through stored sperm in the sequentially polyandrous spotted sandpiper. Nature 359:631-633.
  • Alberico, J. A. R., J. M. Reed, and L. W. Oring. 1992. Non-random philopatry in Spotted Sandpipers (Actitis macularia). Ornis Scandinavica 23:504-508.
  • Reed, J. M., and L. W. Oring. 1992. Reconnaissance for future breeding sites by spotted sandpipers. Behavioral Ecology 3:310-317.
  • Alberico, J. A. R., J. M. Reed, and L. W. Oring. 1991. Nesting near a Common Tern colony increases and decreases Spotted Sandpiper nest predation. Auk 108:904-910.
  • Oring, L. W., M. A. Colwell, and J. M. Reed. 1991. Lifetime reproductive success in the Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia): sex differences and variance components. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 28:425-432.
  • Oring, L. W., J. M. Reed, M. A. Colwell, D. B. Lank, and S. J. Maxson. 1991. Factors regulating mating success and reproductive success in Spotted Sandpipers (Actitis macularia). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 28:433-442.