Citing Print and Web Resources
 
Once you've evaluated your sources, you'll need to properly cite those that are both relevant to your topic and reliable. Failing to give appropriate credit for information or ideas that you have obtained from other sources is a serious form of academic dishonesty called plagiarism. All sources that you refer to your paper need to be listed at the end in a Literature Cited section. To find out more about academic honesty, consult the Tufts University Academic Honesty Policy.


Citing Sources in the Text:

While there are several acceptable citation formats, most scientific literature uses the Name-Year citation format. Sources are cited in the text, tables, and figure legends as the name of the author (or authors) followed by the year of publication, both enclosed within parentheses. If there are two authors, both names appear along with the year of publication. Articles with three or more authors are cited by the last name of the first author followed by "et al." (meaning "and others"), followed by the year. Some examples follow.
 
 
  • Examples
  •   Single Author
    Studies of sperm competition in damselflies (Waage 1979) have revealed that...
    Two Authors
    (Lewis and Austad 1990) or (Lewis & Austad 1990)
    Multiple Authors
    (Hay et al. 1981)


    Listing References:
    A complete listing of all the articles, books, and websites you have cited should be compiled into a Literature Cited section at the end of your paper. These sources are alphabetized according to the last name of the first author: if you cite more than one paper by the same author, these are listed in reverse chronological order (most recent last). Each citation gives the names of all authors, year of publication, and complete title. Citation of books also require the publisher's name and location. Citations of journal articles require the journal name, volume, and page numbers. Web resources also require special citation information, including the URL and specific date visited, since their content may change frequently.


    Examples of reference formats for different kinds of sources are given below:
     
     
    Journal/magazine article
     
  • format
  • Auth or(s). Publication year. Article title. Journal title volume:pages.
       
  • example
  • Smit h, D.C. and J. Van Buskirk. 1995. Phenotypic design, plasticity and ecological performance in two tadpole species. American Naturalist 145:211-233.
       
    With no identifiable author
     
  • format
  • Anon ymous. Publication year. Article title. Journal title volume:pages.
       
  • example
  • Anon ymous. 1976. Epidemiology for primary health care. International Journal of Epidemiology 5:224-225.
       
     
    Full text article found on the Web
     
  • format
  • Auth or(s). Publication year. Article title. Journal title [Type of medium], volume(issue, if given):pages or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].
       
  • example
  • Redw ay, Jacques W. 1923. Disease Carriers: Biological and Geographical. Ecology [Online], 4(4):335-340. Available: http://www.jstor.org [December 23, 1997.]
       
     
    Book
     
  • format
  • Auth or(s). Publication year. Book Title, edition if known. Publisher, Place of publication, number of pages.
       
  • example
  • Purv es, W. K., G.H. Orians and H.C. Heller. 1995. Life: The Science of Biology, 4th edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA, 1195 pps.
       
     
    Book Chapter
     
  • format
  • Auth or(s). Publication year. Chapter title. Pages. In: Book title (Author(s)/editors, first name first), Publisher, Place of publication.
       
  • example
  • Jone s, C.G. and J.S. Coleman. 1991. Plant stress and insect herbivory: Toward an integrated perspective. pp. 249-280 In: Responses of Plants to Multiple Stresses (H.A. Mooney, W.E. Winner & E.J. Pell, editors), Academic Press, San Diego.
       
     
    Thesis or Dissertation
     
  • format
  • Auth or. Publication year. Title [dissertation]. Publisher: Place of publication, number of pages. Available from: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI; DAI number.
       
  • example
  • Ritz mann, R. E. 1974. The snapping mechanism of Alpheid shrimp [Ph.D. dissertation]. University of Virginia: Charlottesville (VA). 59pp. Available from: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI; AAD74-23.
       
     
    Government report
     
  • format
  • Auth or/Agency (if no author). Publication year. Title. Publisher, Place of publication, number of pages.
       
  • example
  • Mitc hell, R.G., N.E. Johnson and K.H. Wright. 1974. Susceptibility of 10 spruce species and hybrids to the white pine weevil (=Sitka spruce weevil) in the Pacific Northwest. PNW-225. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Washington, D.C., 8pp.
       
     
    World Wide Web Resources
     
  • format
  • Auth or(s)/editor(s). Creation date/update. "Title." Available: Site/Path/File [Date visited: MM/DD/YY].
       
  • example
  • Madd ison, D.R. and W.P Maddison. 1996. "The Tree of Life." Available: http://phylogeny.arizona.edu/tree/phylogeny.html [date visited: 9/4/98].
       
    With no identifiable author
       
  • format
  • Titl e. Creation date/update. Available: Site/Path/File [Date visited: MM/DD/YY].
       
  • example
  • Biod iversity and Biological Collections. Nov. 1997. Available: http://biodiversity.uno.edu/ [date visited: 9/4/98].
     
     
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